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Göran Landahl, Peter Adolfsson, Mats Börjesson, Clas Mannheimer, and Stig Rödjer

The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among elite women soccer players. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity, and ferritin were determined in 28 female soccer players called up for the national team. Of the investigated female soccer players, 57% had iron deficiency and 29% iron deficiency anemia 6 months before the FIFA Women’s World Cup. It is concluded that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is common in female soccer players at the top international level. Some might suffer from relative anemia and measurement of hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to reveal relative anemia. Regular monitoring of hemoglobin concentration and iron status is necessary to institute iron supplementation when indicated.

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Elin Ekblom-Bak, Örjan Ekblom, Kate A. Bolam, Björn Ekblom, Göran Bergström, and Mats Börjesson

Background:

Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels.

Methods:

A total of 654 men and women, 50 to 64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined.

Results:

Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared with participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively.

Conclusions:

LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

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Pia Thomeé, Peter Währborg, Mats Börjesson, Roland Thomeé, Bengt I. Eriksson, and Jon Karlsson

Context:

The Knee Self-Efficacy Scale (K-SES) has good reliability, validity, and responsiveness for patients’ perceived knee-function self-efficacy during rehabilitation after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Preoperative knee-function self-efficacy has also been shown to have a predictive ability in terms of outcome 1 y after ACL reconstruction.

Objective:

To evaluate a new clinical rehabilitation model containing strategies to enhance knee-function self-efficacy.

Design:

A randomized, controlled study.

Setting:

Rehabilitation clinic and laboratory.

Patients:

40 patients with ACL injuries.

Intervention:

All patients followed a standardized rehabilitation protocol. Patients in the experimental group were treated by 1 of 3 physiotherapists who had received specific training in a clinical rehabilitation model. These physiotherapists were also given their patients’ self-efficacy scores after the initial and 4-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-ups, whereas the 5 physiotherapists treating the patients in the control group were not given their patients’ self-efficacy scores.

Main Outcome Measures:

The K-SES, the Tegner Activity Scale, the Physical Activity Scale, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control.

Results:

Twenty-four patients (12 in each group) completed all followups. Current knee-function self-efficacy, knee symptoms in sports, and knee quality of life improved significantly (P = .05) in both groups during rehabilitation. Both groups had a significantly (P = .05) lower physical activity level at 12 mo than preinjury. No significant differences were found between groups.

Conclusion:

In this study there was no evidence that the clinical rehabilitation model with strategies to enhance self-efficacy resulted in a better outcome than the rehabilitation protocol used for the control group.