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Examining the Experiences of Peer Mentored Athletes Competing in Elite Sport

Matt D. Hoffmann, Todd M. Loughead, and Gordon A. Bloom

The general objective of the current study was to explore the experiences of elite level athletes who reported being peer mentored by other athletes during their sporting careers. The primary purpose was to identify the mentoring functions provided by athlete mentors, while the secondary purpose was to examine the outcomes related to peer mentored athletes’ (i.e., protégés) mentoring experiences. Individual interviews were conducted with 14 elite peer mentored athletes, and the data were analyzed using a hierarchical content analysis. The results indicated that athlete mentors provided a variety of specific functions that facilitated protégés’ progression through sport and development from a personal standpoint. The findings also showed that protégés benefitted in terms of enhanced performance and confidence, and also demonstrated a willingness to provide mentorship to their peers. In sum, the results of the current study may be used to enhance the effectiveness of peer mentoring relationships between athletes.

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The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey: An Instrument Designed to Assess Coaching Behaviors Tailored to Adult Athletes

Scott Rathwell, Bradley W. Young, Bettina Callary, Derrik Motz, Matt D. Hoffmann, and Chelsea Currie

Adult sportspersons (Masters athletes, aged 35 years and older) have unique coaching preferences. No existing resources provide coaches with feedback on their craft with Masters athletes. Three studies evaluated an Adult-Oriented Coaching Survey. Study 1 vetted the face validity of 50 survey items with 12 Masters coaches. Results supported the validity of 48 items. In Study 2, 383 Masters coaches completed the survey of 50 items. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling indicated issues with model fit. Post hoc modifications improved fit, resulting in a 22-item, five-factor model. In Study 3, 467 Masters athletes responded to these 22 items reflecting perceptions of their coaches. Confirmatory factor analysis (comparative fit index = .951, standardized root mean square residual = .036, and root mean square error of approximation = .049) and exploratory structural equation modeling (comparative fit index = .977, standardized root mean square residual = .019, and root mean square error of approximation = .041) confirmed the model. The resultant Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey provides a reliable and factorially valid instrument for measuring adult-oriented coaching practices.

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Athletes’ Coping With the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Self-Compassion and Cognitive Appraisal

Brittney B. Aceron, Kathleen S. Wilson, Matt D. Hoffmann, and Lenny Wiersma

Coping with the COVID-19 pandemic had implications for athletes’ mental well-being. This mixed-methods study examined the influence of self-compassion on athletes’ coping during the pandemic through the mediator of cognitive appraisal. The prospective design involved 90 athletes completing two online surveys 1 week apart measuring self-compassion, cognitive appraisal, and coping strategies. The PROCESS macro was used for the mediation analysis. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to explore athletes’ responses to the pandemic during the second survey. Self-compassion had an indirect negative effect on avoidance-focused coping by appraising the pandemic as less of a threat (95% confidence interval [−0.20, −0.001]) and had a total effect on emotion-focused coping (95% confidence interval [0.02, 0.40]). Based on the thematic analysis, athletes described many raw emotions and a variety of coping strategies during the pandemic. Self-compassion demonstrated promising benefits to athletes who dealt with the challenging situation of the pandemic.

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360-Degree Feedback for Sport Coaches: A Follow-Up to O’Boyle (2014)

Matt D. Hoffmann, Ashley M. Duguay, Michelle D. Guerrero, Todd M. Loughead, and Krista J. Munroe-Chandler

The sport literature yields little information concerning the available methods or processes coaches can use to obtain feedback about their coaching. This is unfortunate given that evaluative feedback about one’s coaching performance is useful in terms of providing direction for professional coach development (Mallett & Côté, 2006). As a follow-up to O’Boyle (2014), the purpose of this Best Practices paper is to offer a sample protocol for employing a 360-degree feedback system for coaches working in high performance settings. We draw on a review of the coach evaluation and 360-degree feedback literature, along with insights shared from Canadian intercollegiate head coaches to highlight some of the potential benefits and challenges of implementing a 360-degree feedback system in sport. We then suggest ‘best practices’ for effectively integrating this appraisal system and provide an example coach report to illustrate how feedback would be provided to a coach following a 360-degree feedback protocol. It is our hope that this sample protocol paper will encourage coaches, athletic directors, and other sport administrators to integrate comprehensive coach feedback practices in their sporting programs.

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The Psychometric Properties of Two Brief Measures of Teamwork in Sport

Desmond McEwan, Eesha J. Shah, Kaitlin L. Crawford, Patricia C. Jackman, Matt D. Hoffmann, Ethan Cardinal, Mark W. Bruner, Colin D. McLaren, and Alex J. Benson

In the current study, the structural and external validity of data derived from two shorter versions of the Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport (MATS) were examined using multilevel analyses. Evidence of model–data fit was shown for both a 5-factor model comprising 19 items (with subscales assessing teamwork preparation, execution, evaluation, adjustments, and management of team maintenance) and a single-factor model comprising five items (providing a global estimate of teamwork). In general, data from both versions were positively and significantly correlated with (and distinct from) athletes’ perceptions of team cohesion, collective efficacy, performance satisfaction, enjoyment in their sport, and commitment to their team and their coaches’ transformational leadership. The measures appear well suited to detect between-teams differences, as evidenced by intraclass correlation coefficients and acceptable reliability estimates of team-level scores. In summary, the 19-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Short and five-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Global provide conceptually and psychometrically sound questionnaires to briefly measure teamwork in sport.