Much research on physical education preservice teachers’ (PTs) perceptions of effective teaching during early field experiences (EFEs) or student teaching has indicated a concern for keeping pupils well-behaved, busy, and happy (e.g., Placek, 1983). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an EFE, combined with a methods course developed from the knowledge base on effective teaching, on PT conceptions of the teaching-learning process. Data were collected using the critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954) and a reflective questionnaire (O’Sullivan & Tsangaridou, 1992). PT responses were analyzed by employing Goetz and LeCompte’s (1984) analytic induction method. PTs were concerned with pupil learning or elements of teaching related to pupil learning, focused primarily on teaching technique, and believed that knowledge of sports and games was a vital component of teacher effectiveness, frequently mentioning that they were lacking in this area.
Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Studies of the influence of conventional methods courses on preservice classroom teachers (PCTs) have provided mixed results. The purpose of the study described in this paper was to break new ground and examine the effects of a critically oriented 6-week methods course and a 9-week early field experience on one class of 24 PCTs. Data were collected during and immediately after the early field experience by asking PCTs to complete critical incident reflective sheets, success/nonsuccess critical incident reflective sheets, and an anonymous reflective questionnaire. Analytic induction was used to analyze them. Results indicated that PCTs were able to reflect at a technical and practical level and achieved many of the goals at which conventional methods courses are aimed. Conversely, there were few examples of critical reflection. Personal, cultural, and programmatic factors explaining this finding are discussed.
Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: To examine the influence of negotiations between students and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) on GTAs’ instruction within university physical activity classes. Method: Participants were 10 GTAs working in one university. Data collection and analysis were guided by constructs from the classroom ecology paradigm. Data collection techniques employed were non-participant observation, informal and formal interviews, and document analysis. Data were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Results: The type, focus, and extent of negotiations in GTAs’ activity classes varied considerably depending on whether or not they had received prior pedagogical training, gained experience of teaching physical education in schools, and were familiar with the content. Conclusion: Our findings suggest two courses of action be taken if quality activity courses are to be delivered. First, such classes should be taught by GTAs with pedagogical training and teaching experience. Alternatively, previously untrained and inexperienced GTAs should be given extensive preparation.
Tasha Guadalupe and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: In this paper, we describe the study of one teacher as she attempted to purposefully negotiate the curriculum (e.g., goals, content, tasks, and evaluation) with one of her middle school classes. We used key concepts, constructs, and ideas from hegemonic masculinity and feminist theory to guide us in this endeavor. Method: We used seven qualitative techniques to gather data during an 18-lesson unit taught by the teacher Joanne to 37 girls. We employed standard interpretive methods during the analysis. Findings and Conclusions: Both high-skilled and low-skilled passive girls became more motivated to take part in physical education, although low-skilled girls generally had less voice in the negotiation process than their high-skilled peers. Key reasons for Joanne’s success were her skill, the support provided by the school’s leadership team, and the fact that the unit took place within a single-sex class. Conversely, the unit was constrained by Joanne’s and the girls’ socialization and Joanne’s focus on state and local standards.
Chan Woong Park and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the influences of occupational socialization on 11 sport pedagogy internationally born faculty members’ (IFMs) perspectives and practices regarding physical education teaching and physical education teacher education (PETE). Method: Data sources were formal and informal interviews and documents illustrating the IFMs’ practices. They were analyzed using constant comparison and analytic induction. Findings and Conclusions: All of the IFMs’ possessed progressive teaching orientations and were committed to carrying out high-level PETE. There were few differences between the current perspectives and practices of IFMs who originated from different regions of the world. The acculturation, professional socialization, and organizational socialization of a significant proportion of IFMs had been positive and led to them possessing strong traditional teaching orientations early in their careers. IFMs’ secondary professional socialization generally played a crucial role in their development of progressive ideas about physical education and PETE. IFMs’ secondary organizational socialization was also largely supportive of these progressive beliefs.
Hong-Min Lee and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of occupational socialization on the perspectives and practices of sport pedagogy doctoral students in terms of physical education (PE) teaching and physical education teacher education (PETE). Participants were 12 students. Data were collected through formal and informal interviews, observations, and self-reflective posters. They were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Key findings were that doctoral students espoused both conservative and liberal forms of PE and PETE. These views were shaped by the various phases of their socialization. Doctoral students recalled being oriented to teaching and coaching. The longer coaching orientations remained intact, the more likely they were to espouse conservative versions of PE and PETE. The students’ graduate education was shown to be particularly potent and powerful. This appeared to be due to influential faculty, a practitioner focus in master’s degree programs, and engagement in undergraduate PETE.
Lance G. Bryant and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a physical education teacher’s disability on elementary school pupils’ learning and perceptions of the teacher’s competence. Participants (N = 113) were randomly assigned to view one of two virtually identical videotaped swimming lessons. In the first lesson, the teacher was able-bodied (ABL) while in the second, she taught from a wheelchair (WCL). Following the viewing of their assigned lesson, pupils completed an examination over lesson content and a perception questionnaire regarding the teacher. Results showed that pupils who viewed the WCL scored significantly higher on the technique portion of the examination than pupils who watched the ABL. There were no significant differences between the perceptions of either group.
Chan Woong Park and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
The purpose of this study was to describe and examine the occupational socialization of nine adapted physical educators (APEs). The questions we attempted to answer were (a) What were the perspectives and practices of the APEs? and (b) What factors influenced these perspectives and practices? Data were collected through six qualitative techniques and analyzed by using analytic induction and constant comparison. At the time the study was conducted, the APEs possessed traditional or progressive teaching orientations. They had been attracted to a career as an APE through their participation in sport and physical activity and interactions with persons with disabilities. The quality of adapted physical education teacher education the APEs received varied, but high-quality adapted physical education teacher education appeared to exert a powerful influence on their values and pedagogies. The school cultures and conditions in which the APEs worked on entry into the workforce either served to support or negate their programs. We conclude the paper by providing several hypotheses regarding the influences of occupational socialization on in-service APEs’ teaching.
Leah K. May and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: To determine the impact of two preservice teachers’ value orientations on their interpretation and delivery of the skill themes approach. Method: The short form of the value orientations inventory and five qualitative techniques were used to collect data. Participants’ value orientations inventory profiles were illustrated graphically. Interpretive data were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Findings: Results from the short form of the value orientations inventory indicated that Meagan prioritized social responsibility, learning process, and disciplinary mastery, while Jared favored social responsibility, self-actualization, and ecological integration. Qualitative data largely supported these value orientation profiles and indicated that the preservice teachers’ approaches to teaching skill themes differed and were influenced by their pedagogical beliefs. Moreover, qualitative data illustrated how Meagan’s and Jared’s value orientations and interpretations of the skill themes approach had changed and developed. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the importance of preservice teachers engaging in philosophical reflection on the connections between their beliefs and their interpretations of curriculum models.
Meredith George and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation on parents’ readings of and expectations for physical education. Method: Participants were 39 parents of pupils enrolled at one public middle school. Data were collected with an open-ended questionnaire and follow-up formal interviews. They were analyzed using constant comparison and analytic induction. Findings: Key findings were that the parents perceived physical education to be concerned with playing sports and participating in physical activities, health-related fitness, and personal and social development. These perceptions were shaped by parents’ relatives and peers, experiences of physical education, participation in organized and informal sport and physical activity, and the media. Conclusion: Collectively, while these factors led to many of the parents viewing physical education positively and being supportive of it, they also served to limit the ways in which they envisaged the subject might influence their children for the better.