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  • Author: Matthew J. Delmonico x
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Chad R. Straight, Leah R. Dorfman, Kathryn E. Cottell, Julie M. Krol, Ingrid E. Lofgren and Matthew J. Delmonico

Background:

Community-based interventions that incorporate resistance training (RT) and dietary changes have not been extensively studied in overweight and obese older adults. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a community-based RT and dietary intervention on physical function and body composition in overweight and obese older adults.

Methods:

Ninety-five overweight and obese (BMI = 33.4 ± 4.0 kg/m2) older adults aged 55–80 years completed an 8-week RT and dietary intervention at 4 Rhode Island senior centers. Participants performed RT twice-weekly using resistance tubing, dumbbells, and ankle weights. Participants also attended 1 weekly dietary counseling session on a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Outcome measurements included anthropometrics, body composition, and physical function.

Results:

There were small changes in body mass (–1.0 ± 1.8 kg, P < .001), waist circumference (–5.2 ± 3.8 cm, P < .001), and percent body fat (–0.5 ± 1.4%, P < .001). In addition, significant improvements were observed in knee extensor torque (+7.9 ± 19.1 N-m, P < .001), handgrip strength (+1.2 ± 2.5 kg, P < .001), and 8-foot up-and-go test time (–0.56 ± 0.89 s, P < .001).

Conclusion:

Community-based RT and dietary modifications can improve body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in overweight and obese older adults. Future investigations should determine if this intervention is effective for long-term changes.

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Neil A. Doldo, Matthew J. Delmonico, Jason A. Bailey, Brian D. Hand, Matthew C. Kostek, Karma M. Rabon-Stith, Kalapurakkal S. Menon, Joan M. Conway, Craig R. Carignan and Ben F. Hurley

To determine sex and race differences in muscle power per unit of muscle contraction, knee-extensor muscle power normalized for knee-extensor muscle volume was measured in 79 middle-aged and older adults (30 men and 49 women, age range 50–85 years). Results revealed that women displayed a 38% faster peak movement velocity than men and African Americans had a 14% lower peak movement velocity than Whites of a similar age when expressed per unit of involved muscle (p < .001). As expected, men exhibited greater knee-extensor strength and peak power per unit of muscle than women, but women had a faster knee-extension movement velocity per unit of muscle than men at the same relative strength level. Moreover, African Americans had greater knee-extensor muscle volume than Whites but exhibited lower knee-extensor strength and lower movement velocity per unit of muscle when tested at the same relative strength levels.