The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, type of sport, motives, and points of attachment to a team for spectators of selected intercollegiate sports. The significant MANOVA results indicated that gender explained 2% of the variance in motives and 3% of the variance in points of attachment; type of sport explained 4% and 7% of the variance in motives and points of attachment, respectively. A canonical correlation analysis suggested three significant and meaningful variates, which together showed a shared variance between motives and points of attachment in excess of 70%. This suggests that collegiate marketers and managers might want to design their marketing communications to emphasize the relationships among motives and points of attachment rather than trying to segment their fan and spectator base by gender or by type of sport.
Relationships among Spectator Gender, Motives, Points of Attachment, and Sport Preference
Matthew J. Robinson and Galen T. Trail
Servant Leadership in Sport: A Review, Synthesis, and Applications for Sport Management Classrooms
G. Matthew Robinson, Mitchell J. Neubert, and Glenn Miller
Servant leadership is a style of leadership characterized by principles of other-centeredness and ethical behavior, and suggests that truly effective and legitimate leaders place service to others ahead of personal power and control. Studies on servant leadership in organizational and sport settings have consistently produced positive outcomes. However, the idea of servant leadership as a model for successful leadership in sport is only in the early stages of being accepted. Motivated by a need for adequate information and pedagogical resources, the present review describes the origin and conceptualization of servant leadership and summarizes the positive outcomes resulting from servant leadership. A model for understanding servant-leadership attributes and dynamics is presented along with recommendations for sport management educators.
Immediate Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching Programs Compared With Passive Stretching Programs for Hamstring Flexibility: A Critically Appraised Topic
Kristian J. Hill, Kendall P. Robinson, Jennifer W. Cuchna, and Matthew C. Hoch
Increasing hamstring flexibility through clinical stretching interventions may be an effective means to prevent hamstring injuries. However the most effective method to increase hamstring flexibility has yet to be determined.
For a healthy individual, are proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching programs more effective in immediately improving hamstring flexibility when compared with static stretching programs?
Summary of Key Findings:
A thorough literature search returned 195 possible studies; 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Current evidence supports the use of PNF stretching or static stretching programs for increasing hamstring flexibility. However, neither program demonstrated superior effectiveness when examining immediate increases in hamstring flexibility.
Clinical Bottom Line:
There were consistent findings from multiple low-quality studies that indicate there is no difference in the immediate improvements in hamstring flexibility when comparing PNF stretching programs to static stretching programs in physically active adults.
Strength of Recommendation:
Grade B evidence exists that PNF and static stretching programs equally increase hamstring flexibility immediately following the stretching program.