The purpose of this review was to evaluate the scope, impact, and methods of research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in kinesiology departments. Information was obtained from university websites, the Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT), PubMed, Google Scholar, and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) from the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge. Abstracts from 2,227 published studies funded by the NIH were reviewed. The National Institute on Aging funded the largest portion of grants. Metabolic functioning, the nervous system, pathology, and cardiovascular diseases were the major foci. Human and animal studies were predominantly discovery-oriented (e.g., comparative studies, clinical research) with a large percentage of translational approaches. Recommendations for interdisciplinary research are provided.
Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Matthew P. Buman, Kimberly J. Romney, Monica R. Klatt and Mari J. Stoddard
Eduardo Salazar, Mayank Gupta, Meynard Toledo, Qiao Wang, Pavan Turaga, James M. Parish and Matthew P. Buman
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an under-diagnosed risk factor for several adverse health outcomes. The gold standard diagnostic test for OSA is laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG). Portable sleep monitoring has been studied as an alternative for patients lacking access to PSG. This study aimed to assess the validity of the Zephyr BioHarness 3 (BH3), a chest-worn activity monitor that records movement, electrocardiography, and respiratory parameters, to identify apnea events in patients suspected of OSA. Patients (N = 18) underwent single-night laboratory-based PSG while wearing the BH3. PSG data were scored in 30-second epochs by PSG technicians. PSG and BH3 data were sampled and analyzed using three sets of features with a radial basis function support vector machine and three-layer neural networks: (1) apnea events were identified second by second using 5-second windows of raw BH3 data (sensitivity = 48.0 ± 8.7%, specificity = 75.6 ± 3.0%, accuracy = 74.4 ± 2.7%); (2) apnea events were identified second by second using mean, median, and variance values of 5-second windows of BH3 data (sensitivity = 54.7 ± 17.3%, specificity = 66.5 ± 12.1%, accuracy = 66.0 ± 10.9%); and (3) apnea events were identified second by second using phase-space transformation of BH3 data (sensitivity = 68.4 ± 9.0%, specificity = 81.5 ± 2.7%, accuracy = 80.9 ±2.5% for τ = 60; sensitivity = 64.0 ± 7.9%, specificity = 81.8 ± 2.5%, accuracy = 81.0 ± 2.3% for τ = 70). The BH3 may be useful for patients suspected of OSA without timely access to PSG.
Jennifer L. Huberty, Jeni L. Matthews, Meynard Toledo, Lindsay Smith, Catherine L. Jarrett, Benjamin Duncan and Matthew P. Buman
Purpose: To estimate the energy expenditure (EE) of Vinyasa Flow and validate the Actigraph (AG) and GENEActiv (GA) for measuring EE in Vinyasa Flow. Methods: Participants (N = 22) were fitted to a mask attached to the Oxycon. An AG was placed on the left hip and a GA was placed on the non-dominant wrist. Participants were randomized to an initial resting activity before completing a 30-minute Vinyasa Flow video. AG data was scored using the Freedson VM3 (2011) and the Freedson Adult (1998) algorithms in the Actilife software platform. EE from GA were derived using cut points from a previous study. Date and time filters were added corresponding to the time stamps recorded by the tablet video files of each yoga session. Kcals and METs expended by participants were calculated using bodyweight measured during their visit. Data was analyzed using SPSS. A dependent samples t-test, an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and mean absolute difference were used to determine agreement between variables. Results: According to the Oxycon, participation in Vinyasa Flow required an average EE of 3.2 ± 0.4 METs. The absolute agreement between the Oxycon, AG, or GA was poor (ICC < .20). The mean difference in METs for the AG was −2.1 ± 0.6 and GA was −1.4 ± 0.6 (all p < .01). Conclusion: According to the Oxycon, participation in Vinyasa Flow met the criteria for moderate-intensity physical activity. The AG and GA consistently underestimated EE. More research is needed to determine an accurate measurement for EE during yoga using a wearable device appropriate for free-living environments.
Matthew P. Buman, Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Joseph M. Dzierzewski, Adrienne Aiken Morgan, Christina S. McCrae, Beverly L. Roberts and Michael Marsiske
Using peer volunteers as delivery agents may improve translation of evidence-based physical activity promotion programs for older adults. This study examined whether tailored support from older peer volunteers could improve initiation and long-term maintenance of physical activity behavior.
Participants were randomized to 2 16-week, group-based programs: (1) peer-delivered, theory-based support for physical activity behavior change; or (2) an intervention typically available in community settings (basic education, gym membership, and pedometer for self-monitoring), attention-matched with health education. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed via daily self-report logs at baseline, at the end of the intervention (16 weeks), and at follow-up (18 months), with accelerometry validation (RT3) in a random subsample.
Seven peer volunteers and 81 sedentary adults were recruited. Retention at the end of the trial was 85% and follow-up at 18 months was 61%. Using intent-to-treat analyses, at 16 weeks, both groups had similar significant improvements in MVPA. At 18 months, the group supplemented with peer support had significantly more MVPA.
Trained peer volunteers may enhance long-term maintenance of physical activity gains from a community-based intervention. This approach has great potential to be adapted and delivered inexpensively in community settings.
Eric B. Hekler, Matthew P. Buman, William L. Haskell, Terry L. Conway, Kelli L. Cain, James F. Sallis, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Jacqueline Kerr and Abby C. King
Recent research highlights the potential value of differentiating between categories of physical activity intensities as predictors of health and well-being. This study sought to assess reliability and concurrent validity of sedentary (ie, 1 METs), low-light (ie, >1 and ≤2 METs; eg, playing cards), high-light (ie, >2 and <3 METs; eg, light walking), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ≥3 METs), and “total activity” (≥2 METs) from the CHAMPS survey. Further, this study explored over-reporting and double-reporting.
CHAMPS data were gathered from the Seniors Neighborhood Quality of Life Study, an observational study of adults aged 65+ years conducted in 2 US regions.
Participants (N = 870) were 75.3 ± 6.8 years old, with 56% women and 71% white. The CHAMPS sedentary, low-light, high-light, total activity, and MVPA variables had acceptable test-retest reliability (ICCs 0.56−0.70). The CHAMPS high-light (ρ = 0.27), total activity (ρ = 0.34), and MVPA (ρ = 0.37) duration scales were moderately associated with accelerometry minutes of corresponding intensity, and the sedentary scale (ρ = 0.12) had a lower, but significant correlation. Results suggested that several CHAMPS items may be susceptible to over-reporting (eg, walking, housework).
CHAMPS items effectively measured high-light, total activity, and MVPA in seniors, but further refinement is needed for sedentary and low-light activity.