John R. Sirard and Megan E. Slater
Accelerometer use in physical activity research has become increasingly popular but is prone to problems with missing data, which complicate the data reduction and analysis process. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypothesized compliance strategies on improving compliance with wearing a physical activity accelerometer in high school students.
Each of four local high schools was assigned to one of four compliance strategies: (1) receiving three phone calls, (2) completing a daily journal, (3) compensation contingent on number of complete (≥ 10 hours) days of data, and (4) control condition. Participants wore ActiGraph accelerometers for seven days to determine compliance and physical activity.
The contingent group had the highest level of compliance with 96% of the participants acquiring at least four of seven complete days of data. After controlling for grade level, school level percent minority students, and school level socioeconomic status (SES), the contingent group’s compliance remained significantly higher (P = .04) than the journal (85%), phone (72%), and control (70%) participants.
The contingent compliance strategy improved the amount of time the students wore the monitor each day and, thus, the total number of days with ≥ 10 hours of data.
Christine E. Dziedzic, Megan L. Ross, Gary J. Slater and Louise M. Burke
There is interest in including recommendations for the replacement of the sodium lost in sweat in individualized hydration plans for athletes.
Although the regional absorbent-patch method provides a practical approach to measuring sweat sodium losses in field conditions, there is a need to understand the variability of estimates associated with this technique.
Sweat samples were collected from the forearms, chest, scapula, and thigh of 12 cyclists during 2 standardized cycling time trials in the heat and 2 in temperate conditions. Single measure analysis of sodium concentration was conducted immediately by ion-selective electrodes (ISE). A subset of 30 samples was frozen for reanalysis of sodium concentration using ISE, flame photometry (FP), and conductivity (SC).
Sweat samples collected in hot conditions produced higher sweat sodium concentrations than those from the temperate environment (P = .0032). A significant difference (P = .0048) in estimates of sweat sodium concentration was evident when calculated from the forearm average (mean ± 95% CL; 64 ± 12 mmol/L) compared with using a 4-site equation (70 ± 12 mmol/L). There was a high correlation between the values produced using different analytical techniques (r
2 = .95), but mean values were different between treatments (frozen FP, frozen SC > immediate ISE > frozen ISE; P < .0001).
Whole-body sweat sodium concentration estimates differed depending on the number of sites included in the calculation. Environmental testing conditions should be considered in the interpretation of results. The impact of sample freezing and subsequent analytical technique was small but statistically significant. Nevertheless, when undertaken using a standardized protocol, the regional absorbent-patch method appears to be a relatively robust field test.