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Collin Andrew Webster, Peter Caputi, Melanie Perreault, Rob Doan, Panayiotis Doutis and Robert Glenn Weaver

Physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) is an effective means for increasing children’s school-based physical activity. In the context of a South Carolina policy requiring elementary schools to provide children with 90 min of physical activity beyond physical education every week, the purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model of elementary classroom teachers’ (ECT) PAPAC adoption drawing from Rogers’ (1995) diffusion of innovations theory and a social ecological perspective. ECTs (N = 201) were assessed on their policy awareness, perceived school support for PAPAC, perceived attributes of PAPAC, domain-specific innovativeness, and self-reported PAPAC. Partial least squares analysis supported most of the hypothesized relationships. Policy awareness predicted perceived school support, which in turn predicted perceived attributes and domain-specific innovativeness. Perceived compatibility, simplicity, and observability, and domain-specific innovativeness predicted self-reported PAPAC. This study identifies variables that should be considered in policy-driven efforts to promote PAPAC adoption.

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Teresa M. Damush, Susan M. Perkins, Alan E. Mikesky, Melanie Roberts and John O’Dea

In order to provide successful interventions to increase physical activity among inactive older adults, it is imperative to understand motivational factors influencing exercise. The authors present data from 191 (baseline) and 125 (12-month) community-dwelling men and women with mean ages of 68.71 (7.47) and 67.55 (7.55) years, respectively, from a strength-training trial. Approximately 53% had diagnosed knee osteoarthritis. Using a Likert scale, participants self-reported their degree of motivation from personal, social, and environmental factors. Using multivariate analyses, the authors evaluated demographic and clinical correlates of motivational factors to join and continue with exercise. The following results were reported: Knee osteoarthritis was positively related to motivation from an organized exercise opportunity and from efficacy/outcome expectations, and knee pain was positively related to motivation from social support and experience with the exercise task. Understanding these motivators might help in targeting recruitment efforts and interventions designed to increase physical activity in older adults with lower extremity arthritis.

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Collin A. Webster, Heather Buchan, Melanie Perreault, Rob Doan, Panayiotis Doutis and Robert G. Weaver

Despite its recommended use, physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) has received little attention in terms of the factors that help to facilitate it. In this study, a social learning perspective was adopted to examine the role of physical activity biographies in generalist classroom teachers’ (CTs) PAPAC. CTs (N = 213) were assessed on their satisfaction with personal K-12 physical education (PE) experiences, perceived physical activity competence, self-reported physical activity, perceived PAPAC competence, and self-reported PAPAC. Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized relationships between variables. Specifically, PE satisfaction predicted physical activity competence, which in turn predicted physical activity. Subsequently, physical activity predicted PAPAC competence, which predicted PAPAC. The specified model explained 41% of the variance in PAPAC, with PAPAC competence being the largest contributor. This study provides useful information for designing interventions to increase PAPAC, as it stresses the need to identify strategies that improve CTs’ physical activity-related, and PAPAC-related self-perceptions.

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Patrick J. O’Connor, Melanie S. Poudevigne, M. Elaine Cress, Robert W. Motl and James F. Clapp III

Objective:

Describe safety and efficacy of a supervised, low-to-moderate intensity strength training program adopted during pregnancy among women at increased risk for back pain.

Methods:

32 women adopted strength training twice per week for 12 weeks. Data on musculoskeletal injuries, symptoms, blood pressure, and the absolute external load used for 5 of 6 exercises were obtained during each session. A submaximal lumbar extension endurance exercise test was performed at weeks 5, 10, and 13.

Results:

The mean (± SD) exercise session attendance rate was 80.5% (± 11.3%). No musculoskeletal injuries occurred. Potentially adverse symptoms (eg, dizziness) were infrequent (2.1% of sessions). Repeated-measures ANOVA showed large increases in the external load across 12 weeks (all P values < .001) and the percentage increases in external load from weeks 1 to 12 were 36% for leg press, 39% for leg curl, 39% for lat pull down, 41% for lumbar extension and 56% for leg extension. Training was associated with a 14% increase in lumbar endurance. Blood pressure was unchanged following acute exercise sessions and after 12 weeks of exercise training.

Conclusion:

The adoption of a supervised, low-to-moderate intensity strength training program during pregnancy can be safe and efficacious for pregnant women.