The purpose of this article is to examine the effects of treatment discrimination as manifested through performance evaluation bias. Research has demonstrated that demographic dissimilarity between raters and ratees can result in performance evaluation bias. As a result of such bias, work-related opportunities based on performance evaluation might be provided to individuals with demographic characteristics similar to those of the rater and not to those whose characteristics differ. The current model suggests that the denial of such opportunities is associated with the formation of self-limiting behavior and subsequent performance detriment. The current model also addresses the formation of a performance feedback loop that potentially leads to future poor performance. Moderators (i.e., task interdependence, time, social category identification, and common group identity) of the proposed relationships are also identified. Additionally, suggestions for future investigations are offered.
Melanie Sartore and George Cunningham
The purpose of this inquiry was to explore the meanings and organizational implications of lesbianism and the lesbian label within the sport organization context. Fourteen faculty members from two health and kinesiology departments were asked how they, their colleagues, and their departments defined, responded to, coped with, and managed the lesbian label. First and foremost, the words of these faculty members identify the lesbian label as a component of a lesbian stigma at both the individual and departmental levels and within the field of health and kinesiology as a whole. The consequences of the stigma, however, varied by department suggesting the importance of departmental culture and atmosphere. Implications of these findings, as they pertain to sport managers, are discussed.
Melanie Sartore and George B. Cunningham
The purpose of the current study was to explore how a relatively overlooked population of sport-related professionals, female faculty members in health and kinesiology departments in the United States, have interpreted and navigated the cultural fields of gender, sport, and education. Employing qualitative methodology and coupling Connell’s concept of hegemonic masculinity with Bourdieu’s concepts of practice, habitus, field, capital, and agency, ten female faculty members from two health and kinesiology departments discussed sport, in relation to gender, as being both empowering and limiting during their respective lifetimes. Despite these two very different effects, gender, sport and sport participation were significant in shaping these women, both personally and professionally. The implications of the findings and suggestions for future works are provided.
Melanie Sartore-Baldwin and Catherine Quatman-Yates
The purpose of this study was to introduce ethnographic research to students in two graduate-level sport management courses, assess the extent to which the students benefited throughout the duration of the project, and anticipate future benefits as a result of the project. In response to previous calls for a more thorough integration of theory, research, and practice within sport management curricula, a plan to integrate ethnography projects into a sport management human resource management course and a contemporary issues course was developed and implemented. The strengths and weaknesses of the project are discussed relative to student feedback received through journal excerpts and interviews from the students and instructor fieldnotes. Suggestions and guidelines for future uses of ethnography as a teaching tool are offered.
George B. Cunningham and Melanie L. Sartore
Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin and Matthew Walker
Despite anecdotal claims attesting to the influence that social responsiveness has on the purchase behaviors of consumers, this article examined if a specific initiative could result in such outcomes. We investigated the extent to which the Drive for Diversity (D4D) initiative affected consumers’ perceived image and patronage directed toward NASCAR. This study was partially motivated by the importance of social initiatives in practice to underscore their influence on customer-related outcomes. As such, the findings indicated that the NASCAR’s D4D and the perceived image of the organization are key variables in the model. The results also highlighted the mediating role of image and the moderating role of identification on the proposed relationship. More specifically, the authors found that the socially responsive initiative only moderately influenced consumers’ intentions but when coupled with the image of the organization, this relationship became far more impactful.
Nefertiti A. Walker and Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin
Women coaching in men’s college basketball are anomalies. Whereas women occupy 58.3% of the head coaching positions for women’s college basketball teams, they possess a mere 0.01% of men’s college basketball head coaching positions (Zgonc, 2010). The purpose of this study was to investigate men’s basketball coaches’ perceptions and overall attitude toward women in the institution of men’s college basketball and within the male-dominated organizational culture of sport. In doing so, the authors provide insight of core participants (i.e., NCAA Division I men’s basketball coaches) who reinforce hypermasculine institutional norms to form impermeable cognitive institutions. Building on previous research, eight men’s basketball coaches were sampled using semistructured interviewing methods. Results suggested that men’s college basketball is hypermasculine, gender exclusive, and resistant to change. Given these findings, the authors propose sport managers should consider organizational culture and individual agency when developing policies that are sensitive to gender inequality and promote inclusion of underrepresented groups.
Melanie L. Sartore and George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of weight discrimination on perceived attributions, person–job fit, and hiring recommendations. Three experiments were undertaken to investigate these issues with people applying for positions in fitness organizations (i.e., aerobics instructor and personal trainer). In all three studies qualified people who were overweight, relative to their qualified and sometimes unqualified thin counterparts, were perceived to have less desirable attributes (e.g., lazy), were thought to be a poorer fit for the position, and were less likely to receive a hiring recommendation. These relationships were influenced by applicant expertise and applicant sex in some cases. Implications for the fitness industry are discussed.
Bhibha M. Das, Melanie Sartore-Baldwin and Matthew T. Mahar
A significant literature links race and socioeconomic status with physical inactivity and negative health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) perceptions of an underserved, lower socioeconomic minority sector of the workforce.
Two focus groups were conducted to examine university housekeepers’ perceptions of physical activity. Demographic and anthropometric data were also obtained.
Participants (N = 12; 100% female, 100% African-American) overwhelmingly associated PA with traditional exercise (eg, going to a gym). The most important barrier to PA was the perception of being active on the job, thus not needing to do leisure time PA. The most important perceived benefit to PA was improvement of physical and mental health. Employees perceived that a university investment in employees’ health might improve morale, especially within low-pay employee sectors where low levels of job satisfaction may be present.
Although perceived benefits to PA in this population are consistent with other employee sectors, perceived barriers to PA may be unique to this sector of the workforce. PA promotion programs should focus on providing resources as well as guidelines that demonstrate the need for PA outside of the workplace setting. Such programs may improve employee health, morale, and productivity.
George B. Cunningham, Melanie L. Sartore and Brian P. McCullough
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of job applicant sexual orientation on subsequent evaluations and hiring recommendations. Data were gathered from 106 students (48 men, 57 women) who participated in a 2 (applicant sexual orientation: heterosexual, sexual minority) × 2 (rater gender: female, male) × 2 (applicant gender: female, male) experiment related to the hiring of a personal trainer for a fitness organization. Analysis of variance indicated that sexual minority job applicants received poorer evaluations than did heterosexuals. These effects were moderated by the rater gender, as men provided harsher ratings of sexual minorities than did women. Finally, applicant ratings were reliably related to hiring recommendations. Results are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature, limitations, and future directions.