The purpose of this study was to introduce ethnographic research to students in two graduate-level sport management courses, assess the extent to which the students benefited throughout the duration of the project, and anticipate future benefits as a result of the project. In response to previous calls for a more thorough integration of theory, research, and practice within sport management curricula, a plan to integrate ethnography projects into a sport management human resource management course and a contemporary issues course was developed and implemented. The strengths and weaknesses of the project are discussed relative to student feedback received through journal excerpts and interviews from the students and instructor fieldnotes. Suggestions and guidelines for future uses of ethnography as a teaching tool are offered.
Melanie Sartore-Baldwin and Catherine Quatman-Yates
Nefertiti A. Walker and Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin
Women coaching in men’s college basketball are anomalies. Whereas women occupy 58.3% of the head coaching positions for women’s college basketball teams, they possess a mere 0.01% of men’s college basketball head coaching positions (Zgonc, 2010). The purpose of this study was to investigate men’s basketball coaches’ perceptions and overall attitude toward women in the institution of men’s college basketball and within the male-dominated organizational culture of sport. In doing so, the authors provide insight of core participants (i.e., NCAA Division I men’s basketball coaches) who reinforce hypermasculine institutional norms to form impermeable cognitive institutions. Building on previous research, eight men’s basketball coaches were sampled using semistructured interviewing methods. Results suggested that men’s college basketball is hypermasculine, gender exclusive, and resistant to change. Given these findings, the authors propose sport managers should consider organizational culture and individual agency when developing policies that are sensitive to gender inequality and promote inclusion of underrepresented groups.
Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin and Matthew Walker
Despite anecdotal claims attesting to the influence that social responsiveness has on the purchase behaviors of consumers, this article examined if a specific initiative could result in such outcomes. We investigated the extent to which the Drive for Diversity (D4D) initiative affected consumers’ perceived image and patronage directed toward NASCAR. This study was partially motivated by the importance of social initiatives in practice to underscore their influence on customer-related outcomes. As such, the findings indicated that the NASCAR’s D4D and the perceived image of the organization are key variables in the model. The results also highlighted the mediating role of image and the moderating role of identification on the proposed relationship. More specifically, the authors found that the socially responsive initiative only moderately influenced consumers’ intentions but when coupled with the image of the organization, this relationship became far more impactful.
Jeremy S. Jordan, Melanie Sartore-Baldwin, Stephen Shapiro, and Ellen Staurowsky
Jeremy S. Jordan, Stephen Dittmore, Melanie Sartore-Baldwin, and Stephen Shapiro
Bhibha M. Das, Melanie Sartore-Baldwin, and Matthew T. Mahar
A significant literature links race and socioeconomic status with physical inactivity and negative health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) perceptions of an underserved, lower socioeconomic minority sector of the workforce.
Two focus groups were conducted to examine university housekeepers’ perceptions of physical activity. Demographic and anthropometric data were also obtained.
Participants (N = 12; 100% female, 100% African-American) overwhelmingly associated PA with traditional exercise (eg, going to a gym). The most important barrier to PA was the perception of being active on the job, thus not needing to do leisure time PA. The most important perceived benefit to PA was improvement of physical and mental health. Employees perceived that a university investment in employees’ health might improve morale, especially within low-pay employee sectors where low levels of job satisfaction may be present.
Although perceived benefits to PA in this population are consistent with other employee sectors, perceived barriers to PA may be unique to this sector of the workforce. PA promotion programs should focus on providing resources as well as guidelines that demonstrate the need for PA outside of the workplace setting. Such programs may improve employee health, morale, and productivity.
Stacey R. Altman, Mark Moore, Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin, and Stacy Warner
Janelle E. Wells, Melanie Sartore-Baldwin, Nefertiti A. Walker, and Cheryl E. Gray
Stigmas and incivility are common across all facets of sport, yet empirical examination is lacking, especially when it comes to women in leadership positions. In intercollegiate athletics, the senior woman administrator position is designated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association as the highest ranking woman serving the athletic department, so this study examined the extent to which stigma consciousness and workplace incivility impact the work outcomes of 234 senior woman administrators. Structural equation modeling and open-ended responses demonstrated that stigma consciousness is associated with higher perceived incivility, which is associated with lower job satisfaction and perceived organizational opportunity. Thus, stigma consciousness and workplace incivility not only operate as influential independent factors within the workplace setting, but stigma consciousness also serves as an antecedent to workplace incivility. Managerial strategies empowering professionals may help reduce stigmas, prevent uncivil behaviors in the workplace, and ultimately, improve outcomes.