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Lennart Raudsepp, Inga Neissaar and Merike Kull

The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of sedentary behaviors and physical activity in Estonian school children aged 11–12 year at the beginning of the study. In addition, the consequence of changes in sedentary behaviors on a change in physical activity was investigated. Adolescents (N = 345) completed the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall on four occasions over a 22-month period. Results indicated the curvilinear changes in sedentary behaviors and physical activity across time. There was a significant decrease in physical activity and an increase in sedentary behaviors across three years. Stability coefficients indicated a moderate differential stability of the sedentary behaviors (ranged from 0.31 to 0.64) and physical activity (ranged from 0.36 to 0.59) during early adolescence. Latent growth modeling indicated that increase in sedentary behaviors across a 22-month period was inversely associated with a change in physical activity. Interventions targeted at “high-risk” groups to reduce sedentary behaviors during early adolescence are encouraged.

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Evelin Mäestu, Merike Kull, Kerli Mooses, Jarek Mäestu, Maret Pihu, Andre Koka, Lennart Raudsepp and Jaak Jürimäe

Open access

Helena Kruusamäe, Merike Kull, Kerli Mooses, Eva-Maria Riso and Jaak Jürimäe


The 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, the first of its kind, aims to set baseline physical activity (PA) indicators using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance grading system.


A research work group analyzed and selected data for the grade assignment meeting (GAM). During the GAM, 17 leading researchers and policy experts from Estonia assessed the data and assigned grades for each of the 9 PA indicators. In addition, recommendations were provided for further actions to improve the grades.


Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) were assigned as follows: 1) Overall PA (F); 2) Organized Sport (C); 3) Active Play [incomplete data (INC)]; 4) Active Transportation (INC); 5) Sedentary Behaviors (F); 6) Family and Peers (C); 7) School (C); 8) Community and the Built Environment (B); and 9) Government (C). An indicator was marked as incomplete (INC) when there was a lack of representative quality data.


Evidence suggests that PA levels of Estonian children remain very low, despite moderately supportive social, environmental, and regulatory factors. There are many challenges to overcome in supporting and promoting PA of children and youth (eg, cross-sectional cooperation, implementing interventions, changing social norms, empowerment of parents and educational institutions).