The development of a methodology to assess movement coordination has provided gait researchers a tool to assess movement organization. A challenge in analyzing movement coordination using vector coding lies within the inherent circularity of data garnered from this technique. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if accurate group comparisons can be made with varying techniques of vector coding analyses. Thigh–shank coordination was analyzed using a modified vector coding technique on data from 2 groups of runners. Movement coordination was compared between groups using 3 techniques: (1) linear average completed with compressed data (0°–180°) and noncompressed data (0°–360°), (2) coordination phase binning analysis; and (3) a circular statistics analysis. Circular statistics (inferential) analysis provided a rigorous comparison of average movement coordination between groups. In addition, the binning analysis provided a metric for detecting even small differences in the time spent with a particular coordination pattern between groups. However, the linear analysis provided erroneous group comparisons. Furthermore, with compressed data, linear analysis led to misclassification of coordination patterns. While data compression may be attractive as a means of simplifying statistical analysis of inherently circular data, recommendations are to use circular statistics and binning methods on noncompressed data.
Julia Freedman Silvernail, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Katherine Boyer, Michael A. Busa and Joseph Hamill
Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Stephanie L. Jones, Michael A. Busa and Jennifer L. Baird
Postural instability, falls, and fear of falling that accompany frailty with aging and disease form major impediments to physical activity. In this article we present a theoretical framework that may help researchers and practitioners in the development and delivery of intervention programs aimed at reducing falls and improving postural stability and locomotion in older individuals and in those with disability due to disease. Based on a review of the dynamical and complex systems perspectives of movement coordination and control, we show that 1) central to developing a movement-based intervention program aimed at fall reduction and prevention is the notion that variability can play a functional role and facilitate movement adaptability, 2) intervention programs aimed at fall reduction should focus more on coordination and stability boundary measures instead of traditional gait and posture outcome variables, and 3) noise-based intervention techniques using stochastic resonance may offer external aids to improve dynamic balance control.