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What Occupational Socialization Factors Influence Preservice Teachers to Possess Fitness Orientations?

Craig Parkes and Michael A. Hemphill

Purpose: To investigate the existence of fitness orientations among preservice teachers (PTs) and to identify what has influenced these orientations. Methods: The participants were 14 undergraduate PTs enrolled in a physical education teacher education games methods course in the Northeast United States. Qualitative data were collected through autobiographical essays, orientation of self-identification diagrams, and semistructured interviews. NVivo 11 Pro (QSR International, Burlington, MA) software package was employed to analyze data using analytic induction and constant comparison techniques. Results: Twelve PTs possessed moderate (n = 9) or hardcore (n = 3) fitness orientations. Orientations were influenced by three themes: (a) declining physical education quality, (b) elite sport fitness goals, and (c) former head sports coaches and/or current strength and conditioning coaches. Discussion: Faculty must understand the diverse orientation combinations that PTs can now possess and appreciate the acculturation and professional socialization factors that influence and reinforce the development of these orientations.

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Special Issue: Black Scholarship in Physical Education

Michael A. Hemphill and Langston Clark

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Using Simple Interactions to Improve Pedagogy in a Cross-Aged Leadership Program

Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek

Cross-aged teaching programs provide leadership experiences to youth who aim to influence children to be responsible, caring, and compassionate. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a leadership development protocol on relationship development in an established cross-aged teaching program. Method: Guided by the developmental relationships framework, “Simple Interactions” was implemented with a group of nine youth leaders. The intent was to help them improve their relationships with children in four categories (a) connection, (b) reciprocity, (c) participation, and (d) progression. Data were collected through reflection documents and focus group interviews. Results: Qualitative results explain how Simple Interactions impacted reflection and revealed strategies youth leaders used to build relationships with children. Discussion: The findings suggest that the Simple Interactions protocol may provide an innovative strategy to promote reflective practice and develop positive relationships in a cross-aged teaching program.

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The Evolution of Hellison’s Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model in Out-of-School Contexts

Tom Martinek and Michael A. Hemphill

Don Hellison fully realized that getting students to become positive contributors to their community meant that experiences that engender a greater sense of being a responsible person had to be provided. He leveraged the power of out-of-school time programming to implement his Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model and build relationships with variety of underserved youth. Don also understood that community partnerships were important in this effort. This article provides a glimpse at how Don was able to establish TPSR programs in a variety of out-of-school settings—all of which addressed the needs of underserved children and youth. A historical context is provided to illustrate the placement of TPSR in the broader movement of positive youth development. Don’s programs that operated during out-of-school time and spanned the western region of the country to the urban sections of Chicago are described. Inconsistent partner support, scarcity of program space, and feelings of self-doubt are presented as challenges to the viability of TPSR programming. His commitment to making programs work despite these challenges is portrayed. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to illustrate how Don’s work has made a significant contribution to the positive youth development movement within out-of-school time contexts.

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Community Engagement Through Sport: University Partnerships to Promote Youth Development

Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek

Many kinesiology departments engage in partnerships that aim to promote positive youth development through physical activity. These partnerships are often enhanced by mutually beneficial goals and shared decision making between university and community partners. This paper describes how sport has been at the center of two university-community partnerships that have helped to teach life skills to youth. We draw upon our experience working with community partners to illuminate challenges and opportunities for youth-focused partnerships. The programs include an emphasis on sustainability. As kinesiology programs continue to enhance their efforts to partner and support youth development, case studies such as this may help inform our efforts.

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Book Reviews

Michael A. Hemphill and Sandy Wells

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A Practical Guide to Collaborative Qualitative Data Analysis

K. Andrew R. Richards and Michael A. Hemphill

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of a structured, rigorous approach to collaborative qualitative analysis while attending to challenges associated with working in team environments. The method is rooted in qualitative data analysis literature related to thematic analysis, as well as the constant comparative method. It seeks to capitalize on the benefits of coordinating qualitative data analysis in groups, while controlling for some of the challenges introduced when working with multiple analysts. The method includes the following six phases: (a) preliminary organization and planning, (b) open and axial coding, (c) development of a preliminary codebook, (d) pilot testing the codebook, (e) the final coding process, and (f) reviewing the codebook and finalizing themes. These phases are supported by strategies to enhance trustworthiness, such as (a) peer debriefing, (b) researcher and data triangulation, (c) an audit trail and researcher journal, and (d) a search for negative cases.

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Without The Academic Part, It Wouldn’t Be Squash”: Youth Development in an Urban Squash Program

Michael A. Hemphill and K. Andrew R. Richards


The purpose of this study was to examine youth development outcomes in an Urban Squash program.


A mixed method approach to was employed to address three research questions: 1) to what extent did the Urban Squash program exhibit features of a quality OST program?; 2) what aspects of the Urban Squash program were most valued by participants and stakeholders?; and 3) how were outcomes gained within urban squash transferred into the school day. The OST Observation Instrument was employed to provide a measure of fidelity related to the implementation of quality program structures. Youth participants (N = 21) and adults (N = 13) with knowledge of the program were interviewed in a semistructured format. Qualitative inductive analysis and constant comparison methods were used to generate themes.


Systematic observations demonstrated that the program reflected a strong program design with activities that were sequenced, active, personally focused, and explicit. Within that context, four qualitative themes related to quality programming include 1) academic enrichment, 2) academic transfer, 3) relationships, and 4) personal and social responsibility.


Urban Squash provided a quality program structure. Transfer from the program to the school was evident with academic enrichment and personal and social responsibility.

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A Collaborative Approach to Manuscript Revisions and Responses to Reviewer Comments

K. Andrew R. Richards, Michael A. Hemphill, and Sara B. Flory

While there are benefits to collaborative research, navigating group dynamics can also bring challenges, particularly for doctoral students and early career academics who are new to the research process. These dynamics extend beyond initial manuscript submission and include processes associated with interpreting reviewer comments, deciding upon and making revisions, and developing clear author response documents through the revision process. Herein, the authors overview one systematic and replicable approach to managing revisions. Steps include (a) read, set aside, and return to the reviewer comments; (b) document initial reactions to comments; (c) collectively review the comments and decide upon direction; (d) coordinate revisions to the manuscript; (e) craft final response statements; and (f) prepare a resubmission cover letter to the editor. Recommendations will be provided for approaching the revision, including how to revise the manuscript to highlight edits, and suggestions for tone and approach, particularly when disagreeing with a reviewer.

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One Physical Educator’s Struggle to Implement Restorative Practices in an Urban Intensive Environment

Michael A. Hemphill, Risto Marttinen, and K. Andrew R. Richards

Purpose: The purpose of this cyclical action research study was to examine the perspectives of Clyde, a first-year physical education teacher working in an urban intensive environment, as he attempted to implement restorative practices. Methods: Data included semistructured interviews, weekly e-mail communication, text messages, photographs, field notes from observations, and artifacts. Data were analyzed using a combination of inductive and deductive analysis. Results: The results are presented in three themes: (a) searching for appropriate discipline procedures, (b) critical incidents inhibited the integration of restorative practices, and (c) lack of preparation to teach in an urban intensive environment. Conclusion: Clyde’s experience suggests that challenges for early career teachers may be further complicated by teaching in urban intensive environments. Teacher educators may consider the different contexts in which teachers work and the influence they can have on both teacher effectiveness and job satisfaction.