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Michael D. Ross, Shelly Hooten and Darren Moore

Objective:

To determine the relationship between asymmetries in lower leg girth and standing heel-rise after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Design:

Single-group posttest.

Participants:

15 at a mean of 30 d after ACL reconstruction.

Measurements:

Lower leg girth and number of repetitions performed on the standing heel-rise test.

Results:

A significant decrease in lower leg girth and number of repetitions performed on the standing heel-rise test for the involved leg. There was also a low correlation between asymmetries in lower leg girth and standing heel-rise test (r = .25).

Conclusion:

Ankle plantar-flexor endurance should be considered when developing rehabilitation programs for the early stages after ACL reconstruction. In this study the ankle of the involved leg attained a significantly smaller angle of maximal standing plantar flexion, suggesting that ankle range of motion should also be assessed. Caution should be used in predicting standing heel-rise asymmetries from asymmetries in lower leg girth in ACL-reconstructed patients.

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Michael D. Ross and Elizabeth G. Fontenot

Context:

The standing heel-rise test has been recommended as a means of assessing calf-muscle performance. To the authors' knowledge, the reliability of the test using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) has not been reported.

Objective:

To determine the test-retest reliability of the standing heel-rise test.

Design:

Single-group repeated measures.

Participants:

Seventeen healthy subjects.

Settings and Infevention:

Each subject was asked to perform as many standing heel raises as possible during 2 testing sessions separated by 7 days.

Main Outcome Measures:

Reliability data for the standing heel-rise test were studied through a repeated-measures analysis of variance, ICC2, 1 and SEMs.

Results:

The ICC2,1 and SEM values for the standing heel-rise test were .96 and 2.07 repetitions, respectively.

Conclusions:

The standing heel-rise test offers clinicians a reliable assessment of calfmuscle performance. Further study is necessary to determine the ability of the standing heel-rise test to detect functional deficiencies in patients recovering from lower leg injury or surgery

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Ross Tucker, Michael I. Lambert and Timothy D. Noakes

Purpose:

To analyze pacing strategies employed during men's world-record performances for 800-m, 5000-m, and 10,000-m races.

Methods:

In the 800-m event, lap times were analyzed for 26 world-record performances from 1912 to 1997. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, times for each kilometer were analyzed for 32 (1922 to 2004) and 34 (1921 to 2004) world records.

Results:

The second lap in the 800-m event was significantly slower than the first lap (52.0 ± 1.7 vs 54.4 ± 4.9 seconds, P < .00005). In only 2 world records was the second lap faster than the first lap. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, the first and final kilometers were significantly faster than the middle kilometer intervals, resulting in an overall even pace with an end spurt at the end.

Conclusion:

The optimal pacing strategy during world-record performances differs for the 800-m event compared with the 5000-m and 10,000-m events. In the 800-m event, greater running speeds are achieved in the first lap, and the ability to increase running speed on the second lap is limited. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, an end spurt occurs because of the maintenance of a reserve during the middle part of the race. In all events, pacing strategy is regulated in a complex system that balances the demand for optimal performance with the requirement to defend homeostasis during exercise.