The purposes of this study were (a) to construct and validate a Stunt Movement Confidence Inventory (SMCI) that would reliably discriminate between high- and low-confidence children and (b) to examine perceived confidence in light of assumptions from the movement confidence model. Interaction of three components postulated in the model (competence, potentials for enjoyment, and harm) was studied by analyzing the response patterns of 356 children. Reliability coefficients for item, subscale, total scale, and subject stability ranged from r=.79 to .93. SMCI subscales successfully classified 88% of all subjects with a 52.3% improvement over chance and a validity coefficient of .98. The factor matrix accounted for 49% of the total variance and verified the dominance of the competence subscale and the multivariate nature of the harm variable (subscale). Response profiles of low- and high-confidence groups validated the identity and separability of the model's theoretical components—competence, enjoyment, and harm. The SMCI was reliable and valid in discriminating between high- and low-confidence children.
Norma S. Griffin and Michael E. Crawford
Hatice Mujde Ayık and Michael J. Griffin
Postural stability can be threatened by the low-frequency motions in transport that are usually quantified by their root-mean-square (r.m.s.) acceleration. This study investigated how the stability of walking people depends on the waveform of 1- and 2-Hz mediolateral oscillations of the surface on which they walk. Walking on a treadmill, 20 subjects were perturbed by random oscillations of the treadmill with one-third octave bandwidths: different waveforms with the same r.m.s. acceleration and different waveforms with the same peak acceleration. Stability was measured subjectively and objectively by the velocity of the center of pressure in the mediolateral direction. Subjective and objective measures of walking instability increased with increasing r.m.s. acceleration of oscillations having the same peak acceleration. These same measures of instability were also affected by the peak acceleration when the r.m.s. magnitude of the oscillations was constant, especially with 1-Hz oscillations. It is concluded that r.m.s. measures of acceleration are insufficient to predict the postural stability of walking passengers exposed to mediolateral oscillations and that peaks in the oscillations should also be taken into account.
Han Chen, Haichun Sun, Jun Dai and Michael Griffin
The purpose of the study was to identify gender and body weight differences in Chinese adolescents’ perceived expectancy value (EV) motivation in their physical education (PE) class. The study also explored the relationship between EV and adolescents’ health-related fitness performances.
A group of seventh and eighth graders (N = 224) from China were measured on EV toward PE as well as health-related fitness levels. A two-way MANOVA test was used to examine gender and body weight differences in EV motivations. Several two-step hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between EV motivation and various fitness performances while controlling for the effects of gender and body weight.
Boys had higher expectancy beliefs and perceived their PE class as more interesting, useful, and important than girls did. Compared with overweight/obese students, students in the healthy weight group reported higher expectancy beliefs. When the effects of gender and body weight were accounted for, expectancy beliefs were the only reliable predictor influencing adolescents’ cardiorespiratory as well as muscular strength/endurance fitness levels.
Physical educators should use various teaching strategies to enhance students’ expectancy beliefs and task values. This is especially important for female students and overweight/obese students.
Charles H. Imwold, Robert A. Rider, Bernadette M. Twardy, Pamela S. Oliver, Michael Griffin and Donald N. Arsenault
The purpose of this study was to compare the teaching process interaction behavior of teachers who planned for classes with those who did not plan. Senior physical education majors served as the teaching subjects for this study—six in the planning (experimental) group and six in the no-plan (control) group. Each teacher taught the same lesson content for a 15-minute episode. The planning group spent 1 hour before the lesson writing explicit plans, while the control group was given 2 minutes just before the lesson to gather their thoughts and be informed of the content to be covered. The behaviors of all teachers were observed by the Cheffers Adaptation of the Flanders’ Interaction Analysis System (CAFIAS). The results indicated significant differences in only two interaction categories: amount of directions given and the amount of silence. Both variables were better for the planning group.
Sarah E. Roth, Monique Gill, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Lindsay N. Rice, Catherine M. Crespi, Deborah Koniak-Griffin and Michael L. Prelip
Purpose: This study examines the effects of the middle school SPARK physical education (PE) curriculum on predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors for physical activity (PA) as well as self-reported PA in a predominantly low-income, Latinx student population in Los Angeles, CA. Methods: Data were collected from 3763 students of seventh and eighth grades at 2 time points at the 16 middle schools enrolled in the study. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to assess intervention effects on PA attitudes, PE enjoyment, FitnessGram passing, daily PA, and muscle-strengthening PA, controlling for demographic variables. Results: Although there was no detectable intervention effect on increasing the number of students exercising 60 minutes per day, there was a negative intervention effect detected for muscle-strengthening exercises. A significant positive intervention effect was detected for both PE enjoyment and FitnessGram passing. Deeper analysis of these findings revealed that the positive effect on PE enjoyment occurred only among male students. Conclusion: The SPARK curriculum had mixed effects on students’ PA behavior as well as predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors for PA. Incorporating student perspectives into the evaluation of intervention efforts to promote PA can facilitate a better understanding of the ways in which these efforts influence PA behaviors and its determinants.