Treatment of sport-related concussion and subsequent postconcussion syndrome represents a highly complex and multidisciplinary endeavor. Current practice often includes observation by a physician, brief cognitive testing, and outside referrals (e.g., sport psychologist, clinical psychologist, or counseling psychologist) if necessary. However, it is hypothesized that the role of a clinician with interdisciplinary training in clinical psychology, sport psychology, and neuropsychology, henceforth known as the clinical sport neuropsychologist, would represent a holistic treatment provider. It is predicted that a provider with this diverse training background would have a unique constellation of skills that may generate efficient and effective treatment with concussed athletes. The subsequent intervention program is diverse, incorporating neuropsychology, sport psychology, and clinical psychology principles to effectively treat symptoms of post-concussion syndrome while providing psychoeducation regarding current scientific trends. Throughout the program, consultation ranged to incorporate neuropsychological assessment, sport-focused performance enhancement, and psychotherapy focusing on athletic role-transition. Subjective feedback of the athlete suggested that the intervention program was useful. The current case example introduces the potential value of a clinical sport neuropsychologist working within the intersectionality of these psychological disciplines in treating sport-related concussion and its associated conditions.
The Role of the Clinical Sport Neuropsychologist: An Introductory Case Example
Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry, and Michael J. Ross
Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on Performance Recovery
Nuttaset Manimmanakorn, Jenny J. Ross, Apiwan Manimmanakorn, Samuel J.E. Lucas, and Michael J. Hamlin
To compare whole-body vibration (WBV) with traditional recovery protocols after a high-intensity training bout.
In a randomized crossover study, 16 athletes performed 6 × 30-s Wingate sprints before completing either an active recovery (10 min of cycling and stretching) or WBV for 10 min in a series of exercises on a vibration platform. Muscle hemodynamics (assessed via near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured before and during exercise and into the 10-min recovery period. Blood lactate concentration, vertical jump, quadriceps strength, flexibility, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), muscle soreness, and performance during a single 30-s Wingate test were assessed at baseline and 30 and 60 min postexercise. A subset of participants (n = 6) completed a 3rd identical trial (1 wk later) using a passive 10-min recovery period (sitting).
There were no clear effects between the recovery protocols for blood lactate concentration, quadriceps strength, jump height, flexibility, RPE, muscle soreness, or single Wingate performance across all measured recovery time points. However, the WBV recovery protocol substantially increased the tissue-oxygenation index compared with the active (11.2% ± 2.4% [mean ± 95% CI], effect size [ES] = 3.1, and –7.3% ± 4.1%, ES = –2.1 for the 10 min postexercise and postrecovery, respectively) and passive recovery conditions (4.1% ± 2.2%, ES = 1.3, 10 min postexercise only).
Although WBV during recovery increased muscle oxygenation, it had little effect in improving subsequent performance compared with a normal active recovery.
Cross-Sectional Associations of Health-Related Quality of Life Measures With Selected Factors: A Population-Based Sample in Recife, Brazil
Jesus Soares, Eduardo J. Simões, Luiz Roberto Ramos, Michael Pratt, and Ross C. Brownson
We used data from a random telephone survey of 2045 adults in Recife, Brazil to investigate the associations of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with selected factors.
We generated odds ratios of 4 HRQoL measures (perception of overall health, mentally unhealthy days, physically unhealthy days, and physically and mentally unhealthy days impeding usual activities) by levels of environmental factors (number of destinations, neighborhood aesthetics, neighborhood crime safety, neighborhood traffic interference, and neighborhood walkability), physical activity behavior, and participation in the Academia da Cidade Program (ACP).
Perception of overall health was associated with age, gender, education, body mass index (BMI) level, chronic disease, and having heard or seen an ACP activity. Mentally unhealthy days were associated with age, sex, BMI level, neighborhood aesthetics, and neighborhood crime safety. Physically unhealthy days were associated with age, sex, chronic diseases, leisure time physical activity, and neighborhood crime safety, and neighborhood traffic interference. Physically and mentally unhealthy days impeding usual activities were associated with chronic disease neighborhood crime safety, and traffic interference.
The associations of HRQoL with environmental factors and health promoting programs may have public health policy implications and highlight the need for additional research into HRQoL in Brazil.
Having a Goal Up Your Sleeve: Promoting a Mastery Climate in a Youth Football Academy Team
Niels N. Rossing, Michael Lykkeskov, Luc J. Martin, and Ludvig Johan Torp Rasmussen
In sport, there is extensive evidence that supports the benefits associated with a mastery climate. However, limited studies have explored how physical tools could be used to promote mastery climates in youth sport contexts. Using an action research approach, we sought to understand the benefits and drawbacks of applying tools grounded in goal setting to promote a mastery environment: (a) an “arm sleeve” to be worn by athletes during training and matches and (b) a “reflection sheet” for use pre- and posttraining/-matches. These tools were implemented for a 3-week period with a U13 academy team (18 players and two coaches). Based on observation notes, focus groups, and one-on-one interviews, the analysis showed that the arm sleeves were helpful reminders for process goals, whereas the coaches had abandoned the use of reflection sheets due to lack of time. The benefits and drawbacks of the tools are discussed while pedagogical and practical implications are considered.
Project GUIA: A Model for Understanding and Promoting Physical Activity in Brazil and Latin America
Michael Pratt, Ross C. Brownson, Luiz Roberto Ramos, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Pedro C. Hallal, Rodrigo S. Reis, Diana C. Parra, and Eduardo J. Simões
Development and Validation of a Monitoring Instrument for Sport Psychology Practice: The Sport Psychology Outcomes and Research Tool (SPORT)
Ashley A. Hansen, Joanne E. Perry, John W. Lace, Zachary C. Merz, Taylor L. Montgomery, and Michael J. Ross
Evidence for the mechanisms of change by which sport psychology interventions enhance performance is limited and treatment monitoring and outcomes measures would assist in establishing evidence-based practices. The present paper fills a gap in sport psychology literature by demonstrating the development and validation of a new measure (Sport Psychology Outcomes and Research Tool; SPORT). Study 1 described test construction and pilot item selection with 73 collegiate student-athletes. Twenty-three pilot items contributed unique variance while maintaining the original constructs and were selected from 80 initial items. In Study 2, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with collegiate student-athletes (n = 220), revealing a 17-item, four-factor model measuring Athlete Wellbeing, Self-Regulation, Performance Satisfaction, and Sport-Related Distress. Concurrent validity was supported through correlational analyses. Overall, results supported the SPORT as a new transtheoretical tool for monitoring effectiveness and outcomes of sport psychology interventions.
Differences in Body Appreciation and Functionality Appreciation Outside of and Directly Following Sport Among Collegiate Student-Athletes
Zachary A. Soulliard, Hannah F. Fitterman-Harris, Joanne E. Perry, Lindsey M. Poe, and Michael J. Ross
The present study examined differences in body appreciation and functionality appreciation between student-athletes and nonathletes. Additionally, the present study assessed differences in these constructs among female and male athletes outside of their sport and directly following participation in their sport. Seventy-five student-athletes and 211 nonathletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university completed online measures, including the State-Based Body Appreciation Scale and Functionality Appreciation Scale. Student-athletes completed the same measures following a sport practice. Student-athletes reported higher levels of body appreciation and functionality appreciation compared to nonathletes. No differences in body appreciation were found among student-athletes outside of their sport compared to directly following participation in their sport; however, student-athletes reported higher levels of functionality appreciation after their sport practice. Implications for coaches and athletic staff are discussed, including placing a greater emphasis on body functionality rather than specific body ideals.
Using Logic Models as Iterative Tools for Planning and Evaluating Physical Activity Promotion Programs in Curitiba, Brazil
Isabela C. Ribeiro, Andrea Torres, Diana C. Parra, Rodrigo Reis, Christine Hoehner, Thomas L. Schmid, Michael Pratt, Luiz R. Ramos, Eduardo J. Simões, and Ross C. Brownson
The Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America (GUIA), a systematic review of community-based physical activity (PA) interventions in Latin American literature, selected the CuritibAtiva program for a comprehensive evaluation. We describe the process of developing logic models (LM) of PA community interventions from Curitiba, Brazil, and discuss influential factors.
The year-long process included engaging stakeholders involved in the promotion of PA in Curitiba, working with stakeholders to describe the programs and their goals, and developing LMs for the 2 main secretaries promoting PA in the city.
Results & Conclusions:
As a result of stakeholder interviews and discussion and the development of the LMs, local officials are coordinating programming efforts and considering ways the programs can be more complementary. The process has prompted program managers to identify overlapping programs, refine program goals, and identify gaps in programming. It also helped to frame evaluation questions, identify data sources, describe realistic outcomes, and reinforce the importance of intersectoral alliances for public health impact. Developing LMs proved to be feasible in the Latin American context, therefore adaptable and useful for other PA promotion programs in the region.