Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author: Michael J. Stewart x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Restricted access

Graduate Adapted Physical Education Personnel Preparation Programs Receiving Federal Funding

Peter J. Ellery and Michael J. Stewart

A survey of the 13 master’s level and five doctoral level adapted physical education programs that received federal funding in the United States in 1998 was conducted to develop a profile describing their attributes. The response rate was 100% (N = 18). Results indicated that these programs, in general, had received funding for more than 15 years, offered coursework from an average of three different academic disciplines, had a high graduate employment rate within 12 months of graduation, and had about one third of the graduates representing a recognized minority group. Master’s level teacher preparation programs were concentrated in the eastern region of the U.S., had graduates with predominantly in-state home addresses, and had graduated predominantly females. Doctoral level leadership programs were geographically distributed across the U.S., had graduates with predominantly out-of-state home addresses, and had equal graduate representation from both genders.

Restricted access

Children's Attitudes toward Play: An Investigation of Their Context Specificity and Relationship to Organized Sport Experiences

Donald L. Greer and Michael J. Stewart

Beginning with the work of Webb (1969), a line of research has developed attempting to explain how the socialization experiences of children and adolescents help transform their attitudes toward play. In Webb's view, the transformation to a state of being "professionalized" has occurred when an emphasis on equity and fairness, which are pronounced at earlier stages of development, has been replaced by a focus on winning. The body of research that has developed from this original formulation has consistently identified age and gender differences (Loy, Birrell, & Rose, 1976; Maloney & Petrie, 1972; Mantel & VanderVelden, 1971) in play attitudes, with males being more highly professionalized than females, and adolescents and young adults more professionalized than preadolescents. Webb's research identified age, social class, and religious differences in play orientation and made a strong argument that attitudinal transformations represent a coming together of the worlds of play and work:

Restricted access

Validity of Interval Recording in Measuring Classroom Climates in Physical Education

Michael J. Stewart and David Destache

The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of interval recording utilizing a 5-s whole-interval observe time period and 5-s, 10-s, and 20-s lengths of recording intervals in measuring the classroom climates of management, instruction, and activity in a physical education setting. The various record-interval lengths were always in conjunction with a 5-s observe interval. Subjects in the study were 9 physical education teachers from elementary, junior high, and senior high levels. Activities taught by the subjects included rhythms, gymnastics, ball handling, badminton, tennis, and swimming. Each subject was videotaped for one lesson (M=28.9 min). The videotape bank was used to determine the actual and estimated time subjects spent in each climate. Comparison of the continuous time spent in management, instruction, and activity was made with the 5-s observe, 5-s record; 5-s observe, 10-s record; and 5-s observe, 20-s record interval techniques. Data were analyzed utilizing an ANOVA with repeated measures on the continuous factor. Results indicated no significant difference between continuous recording of management, instruction, and activity climates and any of the three observe-record methods. These results suggest that the observe-record methods were valid estimates of time spent in management, instruction, and activity climates.

Restricted access

Self-confidence and Motor Performance of Preadolescent Boys and Girls Studied in Different Feedback Situations

Charles B. Corbin, Michael J. Stewart, and William O. Blair

Lenney (1977) suggests that three situational factors are likely to affect the self-confidence of females in achievement situations. These factors are the sex orientation of the task, social comparison, and the need for performance feedback. In this study, 40 children, 20 of each sex, were studied to determine if the self-confidence of young females in their motor performance abilities was affected by Lenney's third situational variable, performance feedback. Presumably, females need feedback about their performance if they are to attain and/or maintain adequate self-confidence levels. The experiment was designed to control the first two factors: sex orientation of the task and social comparison. Results indicated that when performing a task perceived to be “neutral” in sex orientation in a noncompetitive, noncomparative environment, the self-confidence of young girls did not differ from young boys. In the absence of Lenney's (1977) first two factors, girls did not seem to lack self-confidence nor did they seem to be more dependent on performance feedback than boys.

Restricted access

Higher- Versus Lower-Intensity Strength-Training Taper: Effects on Neuromuscular Performance

Hayden J. Pritchard, Matthew J. Barnes, Robin J. Stewart, Justin W. Keogh, and Michael R. McGuigan

Purpose: To investigate the effects of strength-training tapers of different intensities but equal volume reductions on neuromuscular performance. Methods: Eleven strength-trained men (21.3 [3.3] y, 92.3 [17.6] kg, relative 1-repetition-maximum deadlift 1.9 [0.2] times bodyweight) completed a crossover study. Specifically, two 4-wk strength-training blocks were followed by a taper week with reduced volume (∼70%) involving either increased (5.9%) or decreased (−8.5%) intensity. Testing occurred pretraining (T1), posttraining (T2), and posttaper (T3). Salivary testosterone and cortisol, plasma creatine kinase, a Daily Analysis of Life Demands in Athletes questionnaire, countermovement jump (CMJ), isometric midthigh pull, and isometric bench press were measured. Results: CMJ height improved significantly over time (P < .001), with significant increases from T1 (38.0 [5.5] cm) to both T2 (39.3 [5.3] cm; P = .010) and T3 (40.0 [5.3] cm; P = .001) and from T2 to T3 (P = .002). CMJ flight time:contraction time increased significantly over time (P = .004), with significant increases from T1 (0.747 [0.162]) to T2 (0.791 [0.163]; P = .012). Isometric midthigh-pull relative peak force improved significantly over time (P = .033), with significant increases from T1 (34.7 [5.0] N/kg) to T2 (35.9 [4.8] N/kg; P = .013). No significant changes were found between tapers. However, the higher-intensity taper produced small effect-size increases at T3 vs T1 for isometric midthigh-pull relative peak force, CMJ height, and flight time:contraction time, while the lower-intensity taper only produced small effect-size improvements at T3 vs T1 for CMJ height. Conclusions: A strength-training taper with volume reductions had a positive effect on power, with a tendency for the higher-intensity taper to produce more favorable changes in strength and power.

Restricted access

Adolescent Sport Participation and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Michael J. Panza, Scott Graupensperger, Jennifer P. Agans, Isabelle Doré, Stewart A. Vella, and Michael Blair Evans

Sport may protect against symptoms of mental disorders that are increasingly prevalent among adolescents. This systematic review explores the relationship between adolescent organized sport participation and self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. From 9,955 records screened, 29 unique articles were selected that included 61 effect sizes and 122,056 participants. Effects were clustered into four categories based on the operationalization of sport involvement: absence or presence of involvement, frequency of involvement, volume of involvement, and duration of participation. Results from the random-effects meta-analyses indicated that symptoms of anxiety and depression were significantly lower among sport-involved adolescents than in those not involved in sport, although this effect size was small in magnitude. Meta-regression was used to identify how age and sex explained heterogeneity in effects. Although these results do not signify a causal effect, they do support theorizing that sport participation during adolescence may be a protective environment against anxiety and depressive symptoms.