On two occasions, 8 male subjects completed a dehydration protocol, immediately followed by a 180-min rehydration protocol, then a subsequent exercise bout. During each dehydration session, subjects lost 3.1 ± 0.4% body weight (BW) following discontinuous exercise in the heat (40 °C, 33 % rh). During the first 30 min of rehydration, subjects ingested either 1.0-g glycerol · kg body weight−1 + 30% of the total rehydration water volume (GLY), or 30% of the total rehydration water volume without glycerol (CON). The five remaining ingestions (every 30 min) were equal to 14% of the remaining fluid volume and were identical in nature. Fluid volume ingested equaled fluid volume lost during dehydration. Following the 180 min rehydration period, subjects cycled (~50% V̇O2peak) in the heat (40 °C, 33% rh) until volitional exhaustion. Three observations were made: (a) Following glycerol-induced rehydration, time to volitional exhaustion was greater during the subsequent exercise bout in the heat (CON: 38.0 ± 2.0, GLY 42.8 ± 1.0 min, p < .05); (b) glycerol-induced rehydration significantly increased plasma volume restoration within 60 min and at the end of the 180-min rehydration period; and (c) total urine volume was lower and percent rehydration was greater following GLY, but neither was significantly different.
Timothy P. Scheett, Michael J. Webster and Kent D. Wagoner
Matthew R. Doyle, Michael J. Webster and Loran D. Erdmann
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oral allithiamine administration on isokinetic parameters of muscle performance and lactate accumulation prior to, during, and in recovery from isokinetic exercise. A double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover experimental design utilizing aBiodex System 2 Isokinetic Dynamometer was used to test 15 healthy college students. Subjects orally ingested either 1 g ·
Malcolm T. Whitehead, Tyler D. Martin, Timothy P. Scheett and Michael J. Webster
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether echinacea supplementation results in alterations of erythroid growth factors and erythropoietic status. Twenty-four men age 24.9 ± 4.2 y, height 1.7 ± 0.8 m, weight 87.9 ± 14.6 kg, and 19.3% ± 6.5% body fat were grouped using a double-blind design and self-administered an 8000-mg/d dose of either echinacea (ECH) or placebo (PLA) in 5 × 400 mg × 4 times/d for 28 d. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, prostaglandin E2, ferritin, erythropoietin (EPO), interleukin 3 (IL-3), and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor using automated flow cytometry and ELISA. ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (P ≤ 0.05). EPO was greater (P < 0.001) in ECH at Days 7, 14, and 21 and refected a 44%, 63%, and 36% increase, respectively. IL-3 was greater (P = 0.011) in ECH at Days 14 and 21, which indicated a 65% and 73% increase, respectively. These data indicate that ECH supplementation resulted in an increase in EPO and IL-3 but did not significantly alter RBCs, Hb, or Hct.
L. Christopher Eschbach, Michael J. Webster, Joseph C. Boyd, Patrick D. McArthur and Tammy K. Evetovich
It has been suggested that Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES). also known as Siberian ginseng or ciwuija. increases fat utilization in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological responses to supplementation with ES in endurance cyclists. Using arandomized. double-blind crossover design. 9 highly-trained men (28 ± 2 years. V̇O2max 57.3±2.0 ml · kg−1 · min−1) cycled for 120 min at 60% V̇O2max followed by a simulated 10-km lime trial. Diet was controlled, and ES (1,200 mg · day−1) or a placebo (P) were administered for 7 days prior to each of the two trials. Oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were recorded every 30 min, and rating of perceived exertion. plasma [lactate], and plasma [glucose j were recorded every 20 min during the 120 min of steady state cycling. There were no significant differences (p > .05) between the ES and P groups at any steady-state time interval or during the cycling time trial (ES = 18.10 ± 0.42, P = 17.83 ± 0.47 min). In contrast with previous reports, the results of this study suggest that ES supplementation does not alter steady-state substrate utilization or 10-km cycling performance time.