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  • Author: Michael L. Armstrong x
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Kimberly A. Bush, Michael B. Edwards, Gareth J. Jones, Jessica L. Hook and Michael L. Armstrong

Recently, scholars of sport management have called for more research aimed at understanding how sport can be leveraged for social change. This interest has contributed to a burgeoning paradigm of sport management research and practice developed around using sport as a catalyst for broader human and community development. In order for sport practitioners to successfully develop, implement, and sustain these programs, integration of development-based theory and concepts are needed in sport management curricula. Service learning is one pedagogical approach for achieving this objective, and is well suited for promoting social change practices among students. This study assesses how participation in a sport-for-development (SFD) service learning project impacted the social consciousness and critical perspectives of sport management students. Results suggest the experience raised student’s awareness of community issues, developed a more holistic perspective on the role of service, and influenced their future careers.

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Michael C. Riddell, Sara L. Partington, Nicole Stupka, David Armstrong, C. Rennie and Mark A. Tarnopolsky

Compared to males, females oxidize proportionately more fat and less carbohydrate during endurance exercise performed in the fasted state. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that there may also be gender differences in exogenous carbohydrate (CHOexo) oxidation during exercise. Healthy, young males (n = 7) and females (n = 7) each completed 2 exercise trials (90 min cycle ergometry at 60% VO2peak), 1 week apart. Females were eumenorrheic and were tested in the midfollicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Subjects drank intermittently either 8% CHOexo (1 g glucose · kg · h−1) enriched with U-13C glucose or an artificially sweetened placebo during the trial. Whole-body substrate oxidation was determined from RER, urinary urea excretion, and the ratio of 13C:12C in expired gas during the final 60 min of exercise. During the placebo trial, fat oxidation was higher in females than in males (0.42 · 0.07 vs. 0.32 · 0.09 g · min−1 · kg LBM–1 × 10–2) at 30 min of exercise (p < .05). When averaged over the final 60 min of exercise, the relative proportions of fat, total carbohydrate, and protein were similar between groups. During CHOexo ingestion, both the ratio of 13C:12C in expired gas (p < .05) and the proportion of energy derived from CHOexo relative to LBM (p < .05) were higher in females compared to males at 75- and 90-min exercise. When averaged over the final 60 min of exercise, the percentage of CHOexo to the total energy contribution tended to be higher in females (14.3 · 1.2%) than in males (11.2 · 1.2%; p = .09). The reduction in endogenous CHO oxidation with CHOexo intake was also greater in females (12.9 · 3.1%) than in males (5.1 · 2.0%; p = .05). Compared to males, females may oxidize a greater relative proportion of CHOexo during endurance exercise which, in turn, may spare more endogenous fuel. Based on these observations, ingested carbohydrate may be a particularly beneficial source of fuel during endurance exercise for females.

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Marie A. Johanson, Megan Armstrong, Chris Hopkins, Meghan L. Keen, Michael Robinson and Scott Stephenson

Context:

Stretching exercises are commonly prescribed for patients and healthy individuals with limited extensibility of the gastrocnemius muscle.

Objective:

To determine if individuals demonstrate more dorsiflexion at the ankle/rear foot and less at the midfoot after a gastrocnemius-stretching program with the subtalar joint (STJ) positioned in supination compared with pronation.

Design:

Randomized controlled trial.

Setting:

Biomechanical laboratory.

Participants:

22 volunteers with current or recent history of lower-extremity cumulative trauma and gastrocnemius tightness (10 women and 4 men, mean age 28 y) randomly assigned to stretching groups with the STJ positioned in either pronation (n = 11) or supination (n = 11).

Intervention:

3-wk home gastrocnemius-stretching program using a template to place the subtalar joint in either a pronated or a supinated position.

Main Outcome Measures:

A 7-camera Vicon motion-analysis system measured ankle/rear-foot dorsiflexion and midfoot dorsiflexion of all participants during stretching with the STJ positioned in both pronation and supination before and after the 3-wk gastrocnemius-stretching program.

Results:

A 2-way mixed-model ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (P = .019). At posttest, the group who performed the 3-week stretching program with the STJ positioned in pronation demonstrated more increased ankle/rear-foot dorsiflexion when measured with the STJ in pronation than the group who performed the 3-wk stretching program with the STJ positioned in supination. No significant main effect of stretching group or interaction for dorsiflexion at the midfoot was detected (P = .755 and P = .820, respectively).

Conclusion:

After a 3-wk gastrocnemius-stretching program, when measuring dorsiflexion with the STJ positioned in supination, the participants who completed a 3-wk gastrocnemius stretching program with the STJ positioned in pronation showed more increased dorsiflexion at the ankle/rear foot than participants who completed the stretching program with the STJ positioned in supination.

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Carl M. Maresh, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Jay R. Hoffman, Daniel R. Hannon, Catherine L. V. Gabaree, Michael F. Bergeron, Michael J. Whittlesey and Michael R. Deschenes

In the present study, the effects of an increased daily dose of a dietary supplement (ATP-E, 0.2 g · kg1 · day1) on Wingate test performance were examined in 12 men (21 ± 1.6 years) prior to and following 14 days of supplement and placebo ingestion. A double-blind and counterbalanced design was used. Results revealed higher (p < .007) preexercise blood ATP (95.4 ± 10.5 μmol · dl1) for the entire group following 14 days of ATP-E ingestion compared to placebo measures (87.6 ± 10.9 μmol · dl1). Mean power (667 ± 73 W) was higher (p < .008) after 14 days of ATP-E ingestion versus placebo (619 ± 67 W). Peak plasma lactate was lower (p < .07) after 14 days of ATP-E ingestion (14.9 ± 2.8 mmol · L1) compared to placebo (16.3 ± 1.6 mmol · L1). These data suggested that the improvement in 30-s Wingate test performance in this group may be related to the increased dose of ATP-E.

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Carl M. Maresh, Catherine L. Gabaree, Jay R. Hoffman, Daniel R. Hannon, Michael R. Deschenes, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Avron Abraham, Frederick E. Bailey and William J. Kraemer

To examine the effect of a nutritional supplement (ATP-E™) on high intensity exercise performance, 23 physically active males volunteered to perform six Wingate Anaerobic Power tests. Tests were performed prior to and at 14 and 21 days during ATP-E~o~r placebo ingestion. f i e experiment followed a double-blind and random-order design. Twelve subjects (responders, R) showed an increase in preexercise blood ATP on Day 14 of ATP-E™ ingestion compared to control measures. The remaining 11 subjects (nonresponders, NR) had no change in pree~e~cibselo od ATP. Peak power and mean power were unchanged for both R and NR subjects across the exercise tests, but R experienced a decrease (p < 0.05) in immediate postexercise plasma lactate on Day 14 of ATP-E™ testing compared to their control measures. NR had no change in peak plasma lactate at any time during the study. The results suggest that short-term high intensity exercise performance was maintained in R with less reliance on anaerobic metabolism, and that response was evident following 14 days of ATP-E™ ingestion.