Michael D. Ross and Elizabeth G. Fontenot
The standing heel-rise test has been recommended as a means of assessing calf-muscle performance. To the authors' knowledge, the reliability of the test using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) has not been reported.
To determine the test-retest reliability of the standing heel-rise test.
Single-group repeated measures.
Seventeen healthy subjects.
Settings and Infevention:
Each subject was asked to perform as many standing heel raises as possible during 2 testing sessions separated by 7 days.
Main Outcome Measures:
Reliability data for the standing heel-rise test were studied through a repeated-measures analysis of variance, ICC2, 1 and SEMs.
The ICC2,1 and SEM values for the standing heel-rise test were .96 and 2.07 repetitions, respectively.
The standing heel-rise test offers clinicians a reliable assessment of calfmuscle performance. Further study is necessary to determine the ability of the standing heel-rise test to detect functional deficiencies in patients recovering from lower leg injury or surgery
Michael D. Ross, Shelly Hooten, and Darren Moore
To determine the relationship between asymmetries in lower leg girth and standing heel-rise after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.
15 at a mean of 30 d after ACL reconstruction.
Lower leg girth and number of repetitions performed on the standing heel-rise test.
A significant decrease in lower leg girth and number of repetitions performed on the standing heel-rise test for the involved leg. There was also a low correlation between asymmetries in lower leg girth and standing heel-rise test (r = .25).
Ankle plantar-flexor endurance should be considered when developing rehabilitation programs for the early stages after ACL reconstruction. In this study the ankle of the involved leg attained a significantly smaller angle of maximal standing plantar flexion, suggesting that ankle range of motion should also be assessed. Caution should be used in predicting standing heel-rise asymmetries from asymmetries in lower leg girth in ACL-reconstructed patients.
Ross Armstrong, Christopher Michael Brogden, and Matt Greig
Context: Dance requires the performance of complex movements that may exceed normal anatomical range. However, in hypermobile individuals, this may have implications for injury and performance. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the Beighton score (BS) in predicting mechanical loading in dancers in hypermobile and nonhypermobile dancers with consideration of accelerometer placement and lumbar flexion hypermobility. Design: Cohort study, clinical measurement. Setting: University. Participants: A total of 34 dancers had their joint hypermobility assessed by the BS. Participants completed the Dance Aerobic Fitness Test with a global positioning device incorporating a triaxial accelerometer located at the cervico-thoracic junction (C7) and one at the midbelly of the gastrocnemius. Main Outcome Measures: Accelerometry data were used to calculate PlayerLoad total, PlayerLoad medial-lateral, PlayerLoad anterior–posterior, and PlayerLoad vertical. Physiological response was measured via heart rate and fatigue response by rate of perceived exertion. Results: The total BS was a poor predictor of all mechanical loading directions with PlayerLoad anterior-posterior C7 (r = .15) and PlayerLoad total lower limb (r = .20) the highest values. Multiple linear regression was a better predictor with values of C7 (r = .43) and lower limb (r = .37). No significant difference existed between hypermobile and nonhypermobile subjects for mechanical loading values for all stages of the Dance Aerobic Fitness Test and for heart rate and fatigue responses. Conclusions: The BS is not a good predictor of mechanical loading which is similar in hypermobile and nonhypermobile dancers for all levels of the Dance Aerobic Fitness Test. Mechanical loading and fatigue responses are similar between hypermobile and nonhypermobile dancers.
Joanne Perry, Ashley Hansen, Michael Ross, Taylor Montgomery, and Jeremiah Weinstock
Heart Rate Variability (HRV) technology enables practitioners to analyze the physiological effects of stress. High levels of HRV are associated with improved stress management and sport performance. This study examined the effectiveness of athletes’ (N = 20 collegiate male soccer players) existing mental strategies in maintaining high HRV following three separate stressors. A brief (12-minute) athlete-specific adaptation of a physiological assessment protocol was administered to all athletes. Findings suggest that athletes significantly improved HRV following a cognitive and sport-specific stressor (p < .05); however, athletes were unable to increase HRV following a physical stressor (p > .05). Results suggest athletes were less equipped to cope with physical pain. The process of providing assessment feedback to coaches and athletes is discussed. Finally, clinical and research applications for this brief assessment are introduced and explored.
Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry, and Michael J. Ross
Treatment of sport-related concussion and subsequent postconcussion syndrome represents a highly complex and multidisciplinary endeavor. Current practice often includes observation by a physician, brief cognitive testing, and outside referrals (e.g., sport psychologist, clinical psychologist, or counseling psychologist) if necessary. However, it is hypothesized that the role of a clinician with interdisciplinary training in clinical psychology, sport psychology, and neuropsychology, henceforth known as the clinical sport neuropsychologist, would represent a holistic treatment provider. It is predicted that a provider with this diverse training background would have a unique constellation of skills that may generate efficient and effective treatment with concussed athletes. The subsequent intervention program is diverse, incorporating neuropsychology, sport psychology, and clinical psychology principles to effectively treat symptoms of post-concussion syndrome while providing psychoeducation regarding current scientific trends. Throughout the program, consultation ranged to incorporate neuropsychological assessment, sport-focused performance enhancement, and psychotherapy focusing on athletic role-transition. Subjective feedback of the athlete suggested that the intervention program was useful. The current case example introduces the potential value of a clinical sport neuropsychologist working within the intersectionality of these psychological disciplines in treating sport-related concussion and its associated conditions.
Amy Eyler, Ross Brownson, Tom Schmid, and Michael Pratt
With increasing evidence of the detrimental effects of physical inactivity, there is interest in enhancing research on policies that may influence physical activity in communities. Given the potential policy impact, a framework that organized and conceptualized policy interventions and priorities for public health efforts to promote physical activity was developed. In addition, the Physical Activity Policy Research Network (PAPRN) was formed as a way to operationalize the contents of the framework. Recommendations for future work in this area include enhancing transdisciplinary collaborations, raising the priority of policy evaluation, studying policies at all levels, and emphasizing dissemination of findings.
Joanne E. Perry, Michael Ross, Jeremiah Weinstock, and Terri Weaver
Research has supported mindfulness as a predictor of athletic success. This study used a parallel trial design to examine the benefit of a brief one-session mindfulness training for performance on an individual, nonpacing, closed skill athletic task (i.e., golf putting). All participants (N = 65) answered questionnaires and engaged in two trials of the putting task. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group using a simple randomization strategy. Between trials, the intervention group received a mindfulness intervention. Mindfulness intervention included psychoeducation, reflection upon previous sport experiences, an experiential exercise, and putting applications. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the intervention group exhibited more successful outcomes on objective putting performance, flow state experience, and state anxiety (p < .05). Results suggest mindfulness may prevent performance deterioration and could produce psychological benefits after a brief training session.
Capt. Michael Ross
Column-editor : Katie Walsh
Ross Tucker, Michael I. Lambert, and Timothy D. Noakes
To analyze pacing strategies employed during men's world-record performances for 800-m, 5000-m, and 10,000-m races.
In the 800-m event, lap times were analyzed for 26 world-record performances from 1912 to 1997. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, times for each kilometer were analyzed for 32 (1922 to 2004) and 34 (1921 to 2004) world records.
The second lap in the 800-m event was significantly slower than the first lap (52.0 ± 1.7 vs 54.4 ± 4.9 seconds, P < .00005). In only 2 world records was the second lap faster than the first lap. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, the first and final kilometers were significantly faster than the middle kilometer intervals, resulting in an overall even pace with an end spurt at the end.
The optimal pacing strategy during world-record performances differs for the 800-m event compared with the 5000-m and 10,000-m events. In the 800-m event, greater running speeds are achieved in the first lap, and the ability to increase running speed on the second lap is limited. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, an end spurt occurs because of the maintenance of a reserve during the middle part of the race. In all events, pacing strategy is regulated in a complex system that balances the demand for optimal performance with the requirement to defend homeostasis during exercise.