During the last decades racism has been a persistent scar on British football, and yet the problem has often gone unacknowledged and unchallenged by the game’s authorities. However, in recent seasons, significant antiracist programs have been developed within the context of British football, and the situation has been drastically transformed. This study provides a critical review of these schemes and contests that they have limitations arising from simplistic assumptions about the nature of racism. It is argued that a tendency to conflate racism solely with fascism or with hooliganism provides too narrow a focus and that antiracist interventions should be more cognizant of the diversity of racisms within football. Despite the progress that has been made, it is suggested that the football authorities need to develop more concrete programs to ensure that racism is more effectively challenged and that the game is opened up to all members of society.
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Jon Garland and Michael Rowe
Michael W. Beets, Guy C. Le Masurier, Aaron Beighle, David A. Rowe, Charles F. Morgan, Jack Rutherford, Michael Wright, Paul Darst, and Robert Pangrazi
The purpose of this study was to cross-validate international BMI-referenced steps/d cut points for US girls (12,000 steps/d) and boys (15,000 steps/d) 6 to 12 years of age.
Secondary pedometer-determined physical activity data from US children (N = 1067; 633 girls and 434 boys, 6 to 12 years) were analyzed. Using international BMI classifications, cross-validation of the 12,000 and 15,000 steps/d cut points was examined by the classification precision, sensitivity, and specificity for each age–sex stratum.
For girls (boys) 6 to 12 years, the 12,000 (15,000) steps/d cut points correctly classified 42% to 60% (38% to 67%) as meeting (achieved steps/d cut point and healthy weight) and failing (did not achieve steps/d cut point and overweight). Sensitivity ranged from 55% to 85% (64% to 100%); specificity ranged from 23% to 62% (19% to 50%).
The utility of pedometer steps/d cut points was minimal in this sample given their inability to differentiate among children who failed to achieve the recommended steps/d and exhibited an unhealthy weight. Caution, therefore, should be used in applying previous steps/d cut points to US children.