Mindfulness-based research in sport has focused on athletes, while coaches remain unexplored. Research consistently shows that coaches experience high stress, which can lead to burnout, reduced performance, and emotional mismanagement. The present study developed and explored Mindfulness Training for Coaches (MTC), which is aimed at increasing mindfulness and emotional stability while reducing anxiety. Participants were 20 Division I coaches. The mixed-method design included trait and state measures of anxiety, mindfulness, and emotion, along with qualitative semistructured interviews. Trained coaches reported significantly less anxiety and greater emotional stability from pre- to posttraining. The state measures showed trained coaches were lower in anxiety and adverse emotions at each time point. Interviews showed six distinct positive impacts on coaches: anxiety and stress; emotions; mindfulness; coaching; athletes; and personal life. MTC is a promising intervention for coaches to reduce stress, improve well-being, and enhance coach-athlete interactions.
Kathryn Longshore and Michael Sachs
Ellen J. Staurowsky, Bonnie Parkhouse and Michael Sachs
This paper emanates from a larger project consisting of three phases related to the examination of athletic donor behavior and motivation. This paper focuses specifically on the first phase of that study, which dealt with the development of an instrument to measure athletic donor behavior and motivation using a theoretical model. The Birch and Veroff (1966) paradigm of human motivation was incorporated into a research design that sought to identify the multidimensional aspects of athletic donor behavior and motivation. The Athletic Contributions Questionnaire originally developed by Billing, Holt, and Smith (1985) was revised to reflect incentive motivation factors found in the Birch and Veroff model. The revised instrument was called the ACQUIRE-II.1 One hundred randomly selected participants from each of 2 donor groups from a Division I institution and each of 2 donor groups from a Division III institution (total N=400) completed the ACQUIRE-II with a 50.5% rate of response. An exploratory principal components analysis showed that over 70% of donor motivations for giving could be explained by 6 factors: Benefits, Philanthropic, Power, Social, Success 1, and Success2.
Cheryl A. Travis and Michael L. Sachs
One of the largest groups of persons with disabilities is that of persons with mental retardation. More than 1,000,000 athletes with mental retardation, for example, participate in Special Olympics each year. Sport psychology can help with performance enhancement as well as enhancing the quality of the sport experience for persons with mental retardation. Additionally, participation in exercise and sport can result in increased benefits such as enhanced self-esteem, self-reliance, and willingness to take risks. The literature in this area is reviewed, and extensive suggestions on working with athletes with mental retardation are offered. Due to the cognitive limitations that are one characteristic of persons with mental retardation, the sport psychologist faces particular challenges in providing sport psychology services for this population. A case study is provided to illustrate some of the challenges and rewards in working with athletes with mental retardation.
Rebecca A. Clark and Michael L. Sachs
One group of athletes only recently receiving attention from sport psychologists is those who are deaf. Although these athletes have a communication disability, they participate in sport at all levels, from recreational sport participant to Olympic competitor. This paper reviews the literature on sport psychology and athletes who are deaf. Issues related to assessment of psychological skills with athletes who are deaf are explored through a study with 26 National Deaf Volleyball Tournament players, using the Psychological Skills Inventory for Sport. Finally, suggestions are offered for sport psychologists considering working with athletes who are deaf.
Anna-Marie C. Jaeschke, Michael L. Sachs and Kristen D. Dieffenbach
Ultramarathon running entails coping with unanticipated environmental circumstances and intense physical and psychological fatigue; a sport in which the role of mental toughness can be crucial. This research focused on semistructured interviews with 12 ultramarathon runners who volunteered to discuss their perceptions of mental toughness. The data allowed researchers to gather a multidimensional view of mental toughness from ultramarathon runners’ experiences and perspective in addition to providing a snapshot of the challenges and demands ultrarunners face, as well as ethical concerns associated with athletes pushing themselves beyond their limits. Central themes included: perseverance/persistence, overcoming adversity, perspective, life experience, psychological skills use, and camaraderie in the ultra community. A deeper understanding of mental toughness obtained from a sample of ultramarathon runners can inform consultants working to improve quality or consistency of performance, and become aware of ethical concerns of encouraging athletes to exceed perceptual or actual limitations.
Bang Hyun Kim, Roberta A. Newton, Michael L. Sachs, Peter R. Giacobbi Jr. and Joseph J. Glutting
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-wk intervention that used guided relaxation and exercise imagery (GREI) to increase self-reported leisure-time exercise behavior among older adults. A total of 93 community-dwelling healthy older adults (age 70.38 ± 8.15 yr, 66 female) were randomly placed in either a placebo control group or an intervention group. The intervention group received instructions to listen to an audio compact disk (CD) containing a GREI program, and the placebo control group received an audio CD that contained 2 relaxation tracks and instructions to listen to music of their choice for 6 wk. Results revealed that listening to a GREI CD for 6 wk significantly increased self-reported leisure-time exercise behaviors (p = .03). Further exploration of GREI and its effects on other psychological variables related to perceived exercise behaviors may substantiate its effectiveness.
Lindsey C. McGuire, Yvette M. Ingram, Michael L. Sachs and Ryan T. Tierney
Depression rates in collegiate student-athletes in the literature are varied and inconclusive, and data have only explored depression symptoms utilizing a crosssectional design. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the temporal course of depression symptoms in student-athletes. Student-athletes (N = 93) from a Division II institution completed six administrations of a brief depression symptom screen once every 2 weeks throughout the fall athletic season. Ten (10.8%) student-athletes’ PHQ-9 surveys were red-flagged for moderate to severe depression symptoms at least once throughout the season. A mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant interaction effect for time and sex in depression symptom scores, F(3.69, 335.70) = 10.36, p ≤ .001. The repeated-measures design of this study suggests that there are clinical benefits for screening for depression symptoms in student-athletes at multiple intervals throughout an athletic season.