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Together We’re One? The “Place” of the Nation in Media Representations of the 1998 Kuala Lumpur Commonwealth Games

Michael Silk

Through an ethnographically oriented case study at the 1998 Commonwealth Games, the analysis accounts for the complexities and nuances that realignments in political, economic, and social life create for televised sport professionals. The analysis addresses the mediations of, and the interactions between, the host broadcaster (Radio Television Malaysia) and one “client” broadcaster (Television New Zealand). Specifically, the paper focuses on the conditions of production, the production practices, and the meanings embodied within the product that flowed to New Zealand.

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Rupture: Promoting Critical and Innovative Approaches to the Study of Sport Management

John Amis and Michael Silk

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One Day in September and a Week in February: Mobilizing American (Sporting) Nationalisms

Michael Silk and Mark Falcous

In an ongoing effort to “police the crisis” (see Denzin, 2004a and b; Denzin & Lincoln, 2003) and critically interrogate the tyrannical (govern)mentality of conservative rhetoric centered on a peculiar or juridical concept of “right” (Baudrillard, 2001; Johnson, 2002; McClaren, 2002) under the agenda of “9/11 America,” this article explores the official moral pedagogies of the sporting media. Through analysis of the media representations of two major sporting events that took place in the first week of February, 2002—the delayed Super Bowl and the Opening of the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics—the article focuses on the place of sport as an economy of affect through which power, privilege, politics, and position are (re)produced. The “epistemic panic” (Gordon, 1997; Ladson-Billings, 2000) played out through these two events can be read as part of the wider self-examining, self-referential, existential narrative of the American nation in the wake of the ontological, social, and historical disruption (Giroux, 2002) wrought by 9/11—a politicized and militaristic rhetoric appropriated within, and mobilized through, the affective realm of the sporting popular.

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Globalization, Urbanization & Sporting Spectacle in Pacific Asia: Places, Peoples & Pastness

Michael Silk and Andrew Manley

Within this paper we “hold together” an amalgam of intensive and extensive glocalization and the simultaneous reinscription of the importance of the global growth rationalities to aid understandings of contemporary Pacific Asian sporting spectacles. Through a series of four vignettes, we point to the place of sport within intense transformations within urban conglomerations in Pacific Asia. In so doing, we point to three central, and interrelated, problematics that appear endemic to Pacific Asian mega-events; raising questions over whose histories, whose representations and which peoples matter to, and for, the Pacific Asian sporting spectacle. Conclusions are centered on attuning our scholarly directions toward the structural inequalities embedded within these processes and transformations.

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Institutional Pressures and the Production of Televised Sport

Michael L. Silk and John Amis

The analysis of televised sport production has largely ignored the conditions that frame cultural production and the ways in which broadcasts are constructed. Rather, scholarly discussions of televised sport production have been based on the text that goes to air. Given substantial realignments in political, economic, and cultural spheres brought about by the proliferation of a global media, it is argued that a textual perspective is inadequate if a thorough understanding of the complexities of televised sport production is to be attained. Rather, to appreciate the intricacies involved in cultural (re)production, scholars need to address the ways in which interactions among influential actors impact the process of reproducing sport for television. This paper investigates the conditions of production and the labor processes involved in reproducing a major sporting event. Using ethnographic data collected at the 1998 Kuala Lumpur Commonwealth Games in Malaysia, the ways in which micro and macro institutional processes interacted to frame the reproduction of the Games are assessed and discussed.

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Physical Cultural Studies: Engendering a Productive Dialogue

David L. Andrews and Michael L. Silk

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Toward a Physical Cultural Studies

Michael L. Silk and David L. Andrews

Within this paper we offer what is hopefully both a suggestive (as opposed to definitive) and generative (as opposed to suppressive) signposting of the ontological, epistemological, and methodological boundaries framing the putative intellectual project that is Physical Cultural Studies (PCS). Ground in a commitment toward engaging varied dimensions or expressions of active physicality, we deliberate on an understanding of, and approach to, the corporeal practices, discourses, and subjectivities through which active bodies become organized, represented, and experienced in relation to the operations of social power. Further, drawing on Toby Miller, we suggest that this approach requires a motivation toward progressive social change. We consider the political and axiological contingencies of PCS, how it is differentiated from the “sociology of sport,” and how we may produce the type of knowledge that is able to intervene into the broader social world and make a difference. We are sure many will disagree—perhaps with good reason—with our assumptions. Indeed, such differences are welcomed for we feel that there is greater progressive potential in a field in tension, in healthy contestation, and, in which debates surrounding ontology, epistemology, political intent, method, interpretation, expression, and impact flow freely.

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Recentering Beijing: Sport, Space, and Subjectivities

Tan Zhang and Michael L. Silk

At present, and as China negotiates the instantiation of consumer capitalism, her urban spaces have experienced agonizing growth affecting housing, the internationalization of cities, interactions between government and developers, the development of rural land, migrant flows, and social stratification within the city. Focusing on Beijing, we locate the efforts to host major sporting events—especially the 1990 Asian Games and the 2008 Olympic Games—within the dynamics of the spatial reconfigurations in Beijing, a rapid reordering based on “capital space” (Harvey, 2001), gentrification, and the lifestyle practices of a burgeoning middle and upper class of Beijingers. In so doing, we offer a multidimensional account of the complex manner in which power, mobility, and transformation within a modernizing Beijing intersects with the discursive constitution of bodies, concluding with regard to new forms of social cleavages and inequalities that derive from embracing, however selectively, the logistics of the market in the framework set by the Chinese nation-state.

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Sport and the Façade of Redevelopment in the Postindustrial City

Michael T. Friedman, David L. Andrews, and Michael L. Silk

The challenges and pressures associated with the unfolding postindustrial moment have resulted in the spatial reorganization of contemporary cities. New urban environments have emerged, dominated by spectacular spaces of consumption designed to attract tourists’ and suburbanites’ discretionary incomes. Although presenting a seemingly vibrant and flourishing image of the city as a whole, these spaces are disconnected from the realities of those living in impoverished neighborhoods. Focusing on the Oriole Park at Camden Yards complex in Baltimore, this discussion highlights the link between sport spaces and consumer capital within the postindustrial city. The aim is, first, to illustrate the manner in which cities have used sport amenities as important components of broader urban redevelopment initiatives and, second, to explicate the potential consequences of such policy decisions for city inhabitants.

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The Effect of Calcium or Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Males: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Leslie N. Silk, David A. Greene, and Michael K. Baker

Research examining the preventative effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation has focused on children and females, leaving the effects on male bone mineral density (BMD) largely unexplored. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the efficacy of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D for improving BMD in healthy males. Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Complete, CINHAHL Plus and PubMed databases were searched for studies including healthy males which provided participants calcium supplementation with or without vitamin D and used changes to BMD as the primary outcome measure. Between trial standardized mean differences of percentage change from baseline in BMD of femoral neck, lumbar spine, total body and total hip sites were calculated. Nine studies were included in the systematic review with six references totaling 867 participants contributing to the meta-analysis. Significant pooled effects size (ES) for comparison between supplementation and control groups were found at all sites included in the meta-analysis. The largest effect was found in total body (ES = 0.644; 95% CI = 0.406–0.883; p < .001), followed by total hip (ES = 0.483, 95% CI= 0.255–0.711, p < .001), femoral neck (ES = 0.402, 95% CI = 0.233–0.570, p = .000) and lumbar spine (ES = 0.306, 95% CI = 0.173–0.440, p < .001). Limited evidence appears to support the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation for improving BMD in older males. There is a need for high quality randomized controlled trials, especially in younger and middle-aged male cohorts and athletic populations to determine whether supplementation provides a preventative benefit.