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Group Norms in Youth Sport: Role of Personal and Social Factors

Mark W. Bruner, Jeremie M. Carreau, Kathleen S. Wilson, and Michael Penney

The purpose of this study was to investigate youth athletes’ perceptions of group norms for competition, practice, and social setting contexts in relation to personal and social factors. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of the personal and situation factors on perceptions of group norms. Participants included 424 athletes from 35 high school sport teams who completed a survey assessing team norms in competition, practice, and social settings. Multilevel analysis results revealed differences in group norms by gender as well as gender by team tenure and gender by sport type interactions. Female teams held higher perceptions of norms for competition, practice, and social settings than male teams. Interactions between gender and team tenure and gender and sport type revealed significant differences in practice norms. No differences were found in norms by group size. The findings suggest that examining the characteristics of the team members (i.e., gender, team tenure) and team (i.e., type of sport) may enhance our understanding of group norms in a youth sport setting.

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Supporting Mental Health in Youth Sport: Introducing a Toolkit for Coaches, Clubs, and Organisations

Courtney C. Walton, Serena Carberry, Michael Wilson, Rosemary Purcell, Lisa Olive, Stewart Vella, and Simon Rice

The mental health of young people is of increasing concern, and early intervention prevention strategies are required. Youth sports are potentially effective environments within which to situate interventions due to high participation rates, familiarity to young participants, and the typically positive relationships held with adults within such spaces. However, coaches identify that they require more knowledge to better respond to mental health concerns that may be present among players. Here, we describe a research translation process in which an open-access, evidence-informed resource was developed to support coaches and sports clubs to better respond to athletes in need as well as to create environments that may protect against mental ill-health and promote well-being. The resource includes a toolkit—with an associated checklist—for recreational sport clubs to follow, a guide to responding to young people in need, and a short educational video. We suggest that these practical and applied resources, which can be immediately implemented, may assist in the provision of targeted and structured guidance for coaches’ first response intervention with vulnerable young people. Furthermore, these resources can support future efforts by being specifically tailored for the unique locations and cultures that vary among youth sport environments.

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Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Repetitive Sprint Performance and Body Composition in Competitive Swimmers

Pamela D. Grindstaff, Richard Kreider, Richard Bishop, Michael Wilson, Larry Wood, Cheri Alexander, and Anthony Almada

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A Scoping Review on College Student Physical Activity: How Do Researchers Measure Activity and Examine Inequities?

Oliver W.A. Wilson, Michael J. Panza, M. Blair Evans, and Melissa Bopp

Background: The purpose of this scoping review was to critically examine the design and quality of contemporary research involving college student physical activity participation, focusing on physical activity measurement, assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, and examination of inequities based on sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in 4 electronic databases. Results: From 28,951 sources screened, data were extracted from 488 that met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies were cross-sectional in design (91.4%) and employed convenience sampling methods (83.0%). Based on the subsample of studies that reported the percentage of students meeting aerobic (n = 158; equivalent of 150 min/wk of moderate physical activity) and muscle-strengthening activity recommendations (n = 8; ≥2 times/wk), 58.7% and 47.8% of students met aerobic and muscle-strengthening recommendations, respectively. With the exception of age and sex, sociodemographic characteristics were rarely assessed, and inequities based upon them were even more scarcely examined—with no apparent increase in reporting over the past decade. Conclusions: College student physical activity levels remain concerningly low. The generalizability of findings from the contemporary literature is limited due to study design, and acknowledgement of the influence that sociodemographic characteristics have on physical activity has largely been overlooked. Recommendations for future research directions and practices are provided.

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Framing Physical Literacy for Adults Through a Rehabilitation Lens: An Expert Consensus Study

Celeste Petrusevski, Joy C. MacDermid, Michael G. Wilson, and Julie Richardson

Research indicates a positive relationship between physical literacy and healthy aging; however, there is no consensus on the components required to become a physically literate adult. The objective of this study was to understand how physical literacy for adults with chronic conditions is characterized from the perspective of healthcare professionals. Physiotherapy leaders and physical literacy researchers within North America were invited to an online consensus panel and presented with questions related to physical literacy and rehabilitation. A nominal group technique was used for idea generation, clarification, and ranking. Confidence and safety with movements, motivation and commitment to physical activity, the ability to self-monitor changes in function, and understanding the benefits of physical activity were key components when defining physical literacy. There is a need to reconceptualize physical literacy to include the rehabilitation needs of adults living with chronic conditions, and to design programs that promote physical literacy to enhance function and mobility.

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Comparing Motor Competence of Sex- and Age-Matched Youth With Intellectual Disability From Brazil and the United States

Fabio Bertapelli, Ken Pitetti, Ruth A. Miller, Adam Jaeger, Michael Loovis, Wilson D. do Amaral-Junior, Marcos M. de Barros-Filho, and Gil Guerra-Junior

Youth with intellectual disabilities (IDs) demonstrate below-criteria motor competence (MC) compared with typically developing (TD) youth. Whether differences in MC exist for youth with ID from different countries is unknown. This study examined the MC of youth with ID from Brazil (BR) and the United States (US) and compared it with norms for TD youth as established by the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2). The authors measured 19 BOT-2 test items for bilateral coordination, balance, and upper limb coordination of 502 youth (BR = 252, US = 250) with ID (6–21 years). Raw scores were converted to %ceiling (percentile of highest expected scores). For all test items, no significant differences were seen between BR and US participants in %ceiling scores. Participants from both countries demonstrated equivalent to slightly below BOT-2 norms in 14 of the 19 test items, with lowest scores seen in contralateral synchronizing bilateral coordination, balancing on one leg, and ball handling.

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Tibiofemoral Contact Measures During Standing in Toe-In and Toe-Out Postures

Michael A. Hunt, Christopher K. Cochrane, Andrew M. Schmidt, Honglin Zhang, David J. Stockton, Alec H. Black, and David R. Wilson

Knee osteoarthritis is thought to result, in part, from excessive and unbalanced joint loading. Toe-in and toe-out gait modifications produce alterations in external knee joint moments, and some improvements in pain over the short- and long-term. The aim of this study was to probe mechanisms of altered joint loading through the assessment of tibiofemoral contact in standing with toe-in and toe-out positions using an open magnetic resonance scanner. In this study, 15 young, healthy participants underwent standing magnetic resonance imaging of one of their knees in 3 foot positions. Images were analyzed to determine contact in the tibiofemoral joint, with primary outcomes including centroid of contact and contact area for each compartment and overall. The centroid of contact shifted laterally in the lateral compartment with both toe-in and toe-out postures, compared with the neutral position (P < .01), while contact area in the medial and lateral compartments showed no statistical differences. Findings from this study indicate that changes in the loading anatomy are present in the tibiofemoral joint with toe-in and toe-out and that a small amount of lateralization of contact, especially in the lateral compartment, does occur with these altered lower limb orientations.

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Quantifying Achievable Levels of Improvement in Knee Joint Biomechanics During Gait After Total Knee Arthroplasty Relative to Osteoarthritis Severity

Jereme B. Outerleys, Michael J. Dunbar, Glen Richardson, Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey, and Janie L. Astephen Wilson

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery improves knee joint kinematics and kinetics during gait for most patients, but a lack of evidence exists for the level and incidence of improvement that is achieved. The objective of this study was to quantify patient-specific improvements in knee biomechanics relative to osteoarthritis (OA) severity levels. Seventy-two patients underwent 3-dimensional (3D) gait analysis before and 1 year after TKA surgery, as well as 72 asymptomatic adults and 72 with moderate knee OA. A combination of principal component analysis and discriminant analyses were used to categorize knee joint biomechanics for patients before and after surgery relative to asymptomatic, moderate, and severe OA. Post-TKA, 63% were categorized with knee biomechanics consistent with moderate OA, 29% with severe OA, and 8% asymptomatic. The magnitude and pattern of the knee adduction moment and angle (frontal plane features) were the most significant contributors in discriminating between pre-TKA and post-TKA knee biomechanics. Standard of care TKA improves knee biomechanics during gait to levels most consistent with moderate knee OA and predominately targets frontal plane features. These results provide evidence for the level of improvement in knee biomechanics that can be expected following surgery and highlight the biomechanics most targeted by surgery.

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The Nocebo Effect and Pediatric Concussion

Michael W. Kirkwood, David R. Howell, Brian L. Brooks, Julie C. Wilson, and William P. Meehan III

While placebo effects are well recognized within clinical medicine, “nocebo effects” have received much less attention. Nocebo effects are problems caused by negative expectations derived from information or treatment provided during a clinical interaction. In this review, we examine how nocebo effects may arise following pediatric concussion and how they may worsen symptoms or prolong recovery. We offer several suggestions to prevent, lessen, or eliminate such effects. We provide recommendations for clinicians in the following areas: terminology selection, explicit and implicit messaging to patients, evidence-based recommendations, and awareness of potential biases during clinical interactions. Clinicians should consider the empirically grounded suggestions when approaching the care of pediatric patients with concussion.

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Research Tracker 6 Accelerometer Calibration and Validation in Comparison to GENEActiv, ActiGraph, and Gas Analysis in Young Adults

Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys, and Michael J. Duncan

Background: The ability to objectively assess physical activity and inactivity in free living individuals is important in understanding activity patterns and the dose response relationship with health. Currently, a large number of research tools exist, but little evidence has examined the validity/utility of the Research Tracker 6 (RT6) monitor. Questions remain in regard to the best placements, positions, and cut-points in young adults to determine activity intensity across a range of activities. This study sought to address this gap in young adults. The study aims were 1) to examine criterion validity of RT6 in comparison to breath-by-breath gas analysis; 2) convergent validity of RT6 in comparison to ActiGraph and GENEActiv; 3) development of RT6 tri-axial vector magnitude cut-points to classify physical activity at different intensities (i.e., for sedentary, moderate, and vigorous); 4) to compare the generated cut-points of the RT6 in comparison to other tools. Methods: Following ethics approval and informed consent, 31 young adults (age = 22±3 years: BMI = 23±3 kg/m2) undertook five modes of physical activity/sedentary behaviors while wearing three different accelerometers at hip and wrist locations (ActiGraph GT9X Link, GENEActiv, RT6). Expired gas was sampled during the five activities (MetaMax 3B). Correlational analysis assessed the relationship between accelerometer devices and METs/VO2. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves analysis were used to calculate area under the curve and define cut-points for physical activity intensities. Results: The RT6 demonstrated criterion and convergent validity (r = 0.662–0.966, P < .05). RT6 generally performed good to excellent across activity intensities and monitor position (sedentary [AUC = 0.862–0.911], moderate [AUC = 0.849–0.830], vigorous [AUC = 0.872–0.877]) for non-dominant and dominant position, respectively. Cut-points were derived across activity intensities for non-dominant- and dominant-worn RT6 devices. Comparison of the RT6 derived cut-points identified appropriate agreement with comparative tools but yields the strongest agreement with the ActiGraph monitor at the hip location during sedentary, light, and moderate activity. Conclusion: The RT6 performed similar to the ActiGraph and GENEActiv and is capable of classifying the intensity of physical activity in young adults. As such this may offer a more useable tool for understanding current physical activity levels and in intervention studies to monitor and track changes without the excessive need for downloading and making complex analysis, especially given the option to view energy expenditure data while wearing it. The RT6 should be placed on the dominant hip when determining activities that are sedentary, moderate, or vigorous intensity.