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Michalis Stylianou, Tiffany Kloeppel, Pamela Kulinna and Han van der Mars

Background:

This study was informed by the bodies of literature emphasizing the role of physical education in promoting physical activity (PA) and addressing teacher fidelity to curricular models.

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to compare student PA levels, lesson context, and teacher PA promotion behavior among classes where teachers were using the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model with low, moderate, and high fidelity.

Methods:

Participants were 20 physical education teachers, and their 4th and 5th grade students. Each teacher was observed teaching three times during the study. Fidelity data were collected using a validated observation instrument. PA, lesson context, and teacher behavior data were collected using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). Data analysis included descriptive statistics and group difference tests.

Results:

Significant differences among the three fidelity groups were identified in several items of the observation instrument. No significant moderate-to-vigorous PA or lesson context differences were found among the three groups. Students taught by teachers in the high fidelity group spent a significantly higher proportion of lesson time (7.5%) in vigorous PA than students taught by teachers in the low fidelity group. Teachers in the moderate and high fidelity groups spent a significantly higher proportion of lesson time promoting in-class PA than teachers in the low fidelity group.

Discussion:

Fidelity of implementation to the DPE model had little impact on student PA. The findings of this study can inform future researchers about the methodological importance of examining teacher fidelity to curricular models and associated outcomes.

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Michalis Stylianou, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Donetta Cothran and Ja Youn Kwon

This study was informed by the literature on teaching metaphors and the theory of occupational socialization. Its purpose was to examine in-service Physical Education teachers’ initial (before entering the profession), current, and ideal metaphors of teaching, related factors, and potential differences in participants’ metaphors based on their teaching experience. A mixed-methods approach was employed for this study, including a modified version of an existing survey (N = 66; Alger, 2009) and interviews (N = 13). Descriptive statistics indicated that while participants predominantly embraced teacher-centered metaphors initially, about half of them reported their current and ideal metaphors as student-centered. Constant comparison and analytic induction techniques revealed three themes and several subthemes: (a) fluidity (own definitions, combination of metaphors), (b) formation of initial views of teaching (acculturation, professional socialization), and (c) evolutionary forces and constraints (experience, pressure of test scores, time allocation, resources). These results have implications both for preservice and in-service teacher education programs.

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Michelle E. Jordan, Kent Lorenz, Michalis Stylianou and Pamela Hodges Kulinna

This study examined classroom teachers’ involvement in a yearlong Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAP) implemented in one K-8 rural U.S. school district. Its purpose was to describe patterns of social interaction among teachers, administrators, and families associated with the intervention (i.e., social capital) and whether those interactions were associated with teachers’ program participation. Twenty-two teachers’ social capital as related to CSPAP activities was measured using a validated social capital instrument for teachers four times across one academic year and teachers reported their participation during wellness weeks. Regression and RM-ANOVA were used to analyse the data. Teacher social capital was significantly positively related to implementation of physical activity breaks. The more often a classroom teacher spoke with someone else, the greater the likelihood of that teacher leading a physical activity break. This study provides evidence for the importance of social capital in supporting the implementation of CSPAPs.

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Tiffany Kloeppel, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Michalis Stylianou and Hans van der Mars

This study addressed teachers’ fidelity to one Physical Education curricular model. The theoretical framework guiding this study included professional development and fidelity to curricular models. In this study, teachers’ fidelity to the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model was measured for high and nonsupport district groups. Participants were 20 Physical Education teachers. Ten teachers worked in a highly supportive district, while 10 teachers worked in nonsupportive districts. Data were collected using field notes, a DPE observation instrument, and informal interviews. Two themes emerged from the data: (a) district support led to higher teacher fidelity levels to the DPE curriculum, and (b) the teachers from the nonsupport district implemented management procedures differently than the high support district teachers.

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Natasha Schranz, Vanessa Glennon, John Evans, Sjaan Gomersall, Louise Hardy, Kylie D. Hesketh, David Lubans, Nicola D. Ridgers, Leon Straker, Michalis Stylianou, Grant R. Tomkinson, Stewart Vella, Jenny Ziviani and Tim Olds