A marker has to be seen by at least two cameras for its three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction, and the accuracy can be improved with more cameras. However, a change in the set of cameras used in the reconstruction can alter the kinematics. The purpose of this study was to quantify the harmful effect of occlusions on two-dimensional (2-D) images and to make recommendations about the signal processing. A reference kinematics data set was collected for a three degree-of-freedom linkage with three cameras of a commercial motion analysis system without any occlusion on the 2-D images. In the 2-D images, some occlusions were artificially created based on trials of real cyclic motions. An interpolation of 2-D trajectories before the 3-D reconstruction and two filters (Savitsky–Golay and Butterworth filters) after reconstruction were successively applied to minimize the effect of the 2-D occlusions. The filter parameters were optimized by minimizing the root mean square error between the reference and the filtered data. The optimal parameters of the filters were marker dependent, whereas no filter was necessary after a 2-D interpolation. As the occlusions cause systematic error in the 3-D reconstruction, the interpolation of the 2-D trajectories is more appropriate than filtering the 3-D trajectories.
Mickaël Begon and Patrick Lacouture
Fabien Dal Maso, Mickaël Begon and Maxime Raison
One approach to increasing the confidence of muscle force estimation via musculoskeletal models is to minimize the root mean square error (RMSE) between joint torques estimated from electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal models and those computed using inverse dynamics. We propose a method that reduces RMSE by selecting subsets of combinations of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials that minimize RMSE. Twelve participants performed 3 elbow MVIC in flexion and in extension. An upper-limb electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal model was created to optimize maximum muscle stress and estimate the maximal isometric force of the biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii. Maximal isometric forces were computed from all possible combinations of flexion-extension trials. The combinations producing the smallest RMSE significantly reduced the normalized RMSE to 7.4% compared with the combination containing all trials (9.0%). Maximal isometric forces ranged between 114–806 N, 64–409 N, 236–1511 N, and 556–3434 N for the brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii, respectively. These large variations suggest that customization is required to reduce the difference between models and actual participants’ maximal isometric force. While the smallest previously reported RMSE was 10.3%, the proposed method reduced the RMSE to 7.4%, which may increase the confidence of muscle force estimation.
Andy Roosen, Matthew T.G. Pain and Mickaël Begon
Much research is ongoing into improving the accuracy of functional algorithms to determine joint centers (JC), but there has been limited testing using human movement data. This paper is in three parts: Part 1, errors in determining JCs from real human movement data using the SCoRE method; Part 2, variability of marker combinations during a punch; Part 3, variability in the JC due to reconstruction. Results indicate determining the JC of the shoulder or elbow with a triad of markers per segment with an accuracy greater than 20 mm is unlikely. Part 2 suggests conducting a pilot study with abundant markers to obtain triads, which are most stable due to differences of 300–400% in variability between triads. Variability due to the choice of reference frame for reconstruction during the punch ranged from 2.5 to 13.8 mm for the shoulder and 1.5 to 21.1 mm for the elbow. It would appear more pertinent to enhance the practical methods in situ than to further improve theoretical accuracy of functional methods.
Julien Le Gal, Mickael Begon, Benoit Gillet and Isabelle Rogowski
Context: Tennis induces a decreased internal rotation range of motion at the dominant glenohumeral joint. The effects of self-myofascial release have not yet been investigated to restore glenohumeral range of motion. Objective: This study aimed at investigating the effects of self-myofascial release on shoulder function and perception in adolescent tennis players. Design: Test–retest design. Setting: Tennis training sport facilities. Participants: Eleven male players participated in this study (age: 15  y; height: 173.1 [11.1] cm; mass: 56.0 [15.1] kg; International Tennis Number: 3). Intervention: During 5 weeks, the players performed their regular tennis training. During 5 additional weeks, self-myofascial release of the infraspinatus and pectoralis muscles was implemented 3 times per week after the warm-up of the regular training session. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion. The secondary outcomes were perceived shoulder instability and tennis serve accuracy and velocity. Results: Adding self-myofascial release allowed an increase of 11° (2°) of internal rotation range of motion at the dominant glenohumeral joint (P < .001) and a decreased perception of shoulder instability (P = .03), while maintaining tennis serve velocity and accuracy. Conclusions: Implementing self-myofascial release on infraspinatus and pectoralis muscles 3 times per week during 5 weeks improved dominant glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion in tennis players. It can be used as a strategy to preserve the mobility of this joint.
Guillaume Gaudet, Maxime Raison, Fabien Dal Maso, Sofiane Achiche and Mickael Begon
The aim of this study is to determine the intra- and intersession reliability of nonnormalized surface electromyography (sEMG) on the muscles actuating the forearm during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). A subobjective of this study is to determine the intra- and intersession reliability of forearm MVIC force or torque, which is a prerequisite to assess sEMG reliability. Eighteen healthy adults participated at 4 different times: baseline, 1-h post, 6-h post, and 24-h post. They performed 3 MVIC trials of forearm flexion, extension, pronation, and supination. sEMG of the biceps brachii short head, brachialis, brachioradialis, triceps brachii long head, pronator teres, and pronator quadratus were measured. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) on MVIC ranged from 0.36 to 0.99. Reliability was excellent for flexion, extension, and supination MVIC for both intra- and intersession. The ICC on sEMG ranged from 0.58 to 0.99. sEMG reliability was excellent for brachialis, brachioradialis, and pronator quadratus, and good to excellent for triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and pronator teres. This study shows that performing 3 MVICs is sufficient to obtain highly reliable maximal sEMG over 24 h for the main muscles actuating the forearm. These results confirm the potential of sEMG for muscle motor functional monitoring.