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Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Rod Walker, John Bellettiere, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Boeun Kim, David Wing, KatieRose Richmire, Paul K. Crane, Eric B. Larson, and Dori E. Rosenberg

Neighborhood walkability has been associated with self-reported sedentary behavior (SB) and self-reported and objective physical activity. However, self-reported measures of SB are inaccurate and can lead to biased estimates, and few studies have examined how associations differ by gender and age. The authors examined the relationships between perceived neighborhood walkability measured with the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (scored 1.0–4.0) and device-based SB and physical activity in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,077). The authors fit linear regression models adjusting for device wear time, demographics, self-rated health, and accounting for probability of participation. The Higher Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale was associated with higher steps (+676 steps/point on the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale, p = .001) and sit-to-stand transitions (+2.4 transitions/point, p = .018). Though not statistically significant, stratified analyses suggest an attenuation of effect for those aged 85 years and older and for women. Consistent with previous literature, neighborhood walkability was associated with more steps, though not with physical activity time. The neighborhood environment may also influence SB.

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Mariana Wingood, Levi Bonnell, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Dori Rosenberg, Rod Walker, John Bellettiere, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, David Wing, and Nancy Gell

Though it is known that most older adults do not meet the recommended physical activity (PA) guidelines, little is known regarding their participation in balance activities or the full guidelines. Therefore, we sought to describe PA patterns among 1,352 community-dwelling older adult participants of the Adult Changes in Thought study, a longitudinal cohort study exploring dementia-related risk factors. We used a modified version of the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors questionnaire to explore PA performed and classify participants as meeting or not meeting the full guidelines or any component of the guidelines. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with meeting PA guidelines. Despite performing 10 hr of weekly PA, only 11% of participants met the full guidelines. Older age, greater body mass index, needing assistance with instrumental daily activities, and heart disease were associated with decreased odds of meeting PA guidelines. These results can guide interventions that address PA among older adults.

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Dori E. Rosenberg, Melissa L. Anderson, Anne Renz, Theresa E. Matson, Amy K. Lee, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, David E. Arterburn, Paul A. Gardiner, Jacqueline Kerr, and Jennifer B. McClure

Background: The authors tested the efficacy of the “I-STAND” intervention for reducing sitting time, a novel and potentially health-promoting approach, in older adults with obesity. Methods: The authors recruited 60 people (mean age = 68 ± 4.9 years, 68% female, 86% White; mean body mass index = 35.4). The participants were randomized to receive the I-STAND sitting reduction intervention (n = 29) or healthy living control group (n = 31) for 12 weeks. At baseline and at 12 weeks, the participants wore activPAL devices to assess sitting time (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included fasting glucose, blood pressure, and weight. Linear regression models assessed between-group differences in the outcomes. Results: The I-STAND participants significantly reduced their sitting time compared with the controls (–58 min per day; 95% confidence interval [–100.3, –15.6]; p = .007). There were no statistically significant changes in the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: I-STAND was efficacious in reducing sitting time, but not in changing health outcomes in older adults with obesity.

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Jordan A. Carlson, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, John Bellettiere, Nicola D. Ridgers, Chelsea Steel, Carolina Bejarano, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Dori E. Rosenberg, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Marta M. Jankowska, and Loki Natarajan

Background: The authors assessed agreement between participant diaries and two automated algorithms applied to activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd, Glasgow, United Kingdom) data for classifying awake wear time in three age groups. Methods: Study 1 involved 20 youth and 23 adults who, by protocol, removed the activPAL occasionally to create nonwear periods. Study 2 involved 744 older adults who wore the activPAL continuously. Both studies involved multiple assessment days. In-bed, out-of-bed, and nonwear times were recorded in the participant diaries. The CREA (in PAL processing suite) and ProcessingPAL (secondary application) algorithms estimated out-of-bed wear time. Second- and day-level agreement between the algorithms and diary was investigated, as were associations of sedentary variables with self-rated health. Results: The overall accuracy for classifying out-of-bed wear time as compared with the diary was 89.7% (Study 1) to 95% (Study 2) for CREA and 89.4% (Study 1) to 93% (Study 2) for ProcessingPAL. Over 90% of the nonwear time occurring in nonwear periods >165 min was detected by both algorithms, while <11% occurring in periods ≤165 min was detected. For the daily variables, the mean absolute errors for each algorithm were generally within 0–15% of the diary mean. Most Spearman correlations were very large (≥.81). The mean absolute errors and correlations were less favorable for days on which any nonwear time had occurred. The associations between sedentary variables and self-rated health were similar across processing methods. Conclusion: The automated awake wear-time classification algorithms performed similarly to the diary information on days without short (≤2.5–2.75 hr) nonwear periods. Because both diary and algorithm data can have inaccuracies, best practices likely involve integrating diary and algorithm output.

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John Bellettiere, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, Jordan A. Carlson, Nicola D. Ridgers, Sandy Liles, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Rod L. Walker, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Marta M. Jankowska, Dori E. Rosenberg, and Loki Natarajan

Little is known about how sedentary behavior (SB) metrics derived from hip- and thigh-worn accelerometers agree for older adults. Thigh-worn activPAL (AP) micro monitors were concurrently worn with hip-worn ActiGraph (AG) GT3X+ accelerometers (with SB measured using the 100 counts per minute [cpm] cut point; AG100cpm) by 953 older adults (age 77 ± 6.6, 54% women) for 4–7 days. Device agreement for sedentary time and five SB pattern metrics was assessed using mean error and correlations. Logistic regression tested associations with four health outcomes using standardized (i.e., z scores) and unstandardized SB metrics. Mean errors (AP − AG100cpm) and 95% limits of agreement were: sedentary time −54.7 [−223.4, 113.9] min/day; time in 30+ min bouts 77.6 [−74.8, 230.1] min/day; mean bout duration 5.9 [0.5, 11.4] min; usual bout duration 15.2 [0.4, 30] min; breaks in sedentary time −35.4 [−63.1, −7.6] breaks/day; and alpha −.5 [−.6, −.4]. Respective Pearson correlations were: .66, .78, .73, .79, .51, and .40. Concordance correlations were: .57, .67, .40, .50, .14, and .02. The statistical significance and direction of associations were identical for AG100cpm and AP metrics in 46 of 48 tests, though significant differences in the magnitude of odds ratios were observed among 13 of 24 tests for unstandardized and five of 24 for standardized SB metrics. Caution is needed when interpreting SB metrics and associations with health from AG100cpm due to the tendency for it to overestimate breaks in sedentary time relative to AP. However, high correlations between AP and AG100cpm measures and similar standardized associations with health outcomes suggest that studies using AG100cpm are useful, though not ideal, for studying SB in older adults.

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John Bellettiere, Supun Nakandala, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, Elisabeth A.H. Winkler, Paul R. Hibbing, Genevieve N. Healy, David W. Dunstan, Neville Owen, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Dori E. Rosenberg, Jingjing Zou, Jordan A. Carlson, Chongzhi Di, Lindsay W. Dillon, Marta M. Jankowska, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Nicola D. Ridgers, Rong Zablocki, Arun Kumar, and Loki Natarajan

Background: Hip-worn accelerometers are commonly used, but data processed using the 100 counts per minute cut point do not accurately measure sitting patterns. We developed and validated a model to accurately classify sitting and sitting patterns using hip-worn accelerometer data from a wide age range of older adults. Methods: Deep learning models were trained with 30-Hz triaxial hip-worn accelerometer data as inputs and activPAL sitting/nonsitting events as ground truth. Data from 981 adults aged 35–99 years from cohorts in two continents were used to train the model, which we call CHAP-Adult (Convolutional Neural Network Hip Accelerometer Posture-Adult). Validation was conducted among 419 randomly selected adults not included in model training. Results: Mean errors (activPAL − CHAP-Adult) and 95% limits of agreement were: sedentary time −10.5 (−63.0, 42.0) min/day, breaks in sedentary time 1.9 (−9.2, 12.9) breaks/day, mean bout duration −0.6 (−4.0, 2.7) min, usual bout duration −1.4 (−8.3, 5.4) min, alpha .00 (−.04, .04), and time in ≥30-min bouts −15.1 (−84.3, 54.1) min/day. Respective mean (and absolute) percent errors were: −2.0% (4.0%), −4.7% (12.2%), 4.1% (11.6%), −4.4% (9.6%), 0.0% (1.4%), and 5.4% (9.6%). Pearson’s correlations were: .96, .92, .86, .92, .78, and .96. Error was generally consistent across age, gender, and body mass index groups with the largest deviations observed for those with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Conclusions: Overall, these strong validation results indicate CHAP-Adult represents a significant advancement in the ambulatory measurement of sitting and sitting patterns using hip-worn accelerometers. Pending external validation, it could be widely applied to data from around the world to extend understanding of the epidemiology and health consequences of sitting.