This study addresses performance-enhancement drug (PED) consumption in amateur sport by investigating the relationship between psychosocial factors and PED use in amateur cyclists. Participants were asked whether they had ever taken PED. They were also asked whether they had any experience in competitive cycling, and the degree to which they participated in the event with a competitive aim. In addition, they completed the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a bespoke self-efficacy questionnaire, and they rated the percentage of cyclists they believed took PED. Between-groups comparisons and two multiple regression analyses were performed. Overall, the results of our study point to adult amateur cyclists in general, and amateur cyclists with experience in competition in particular, as groups at risk for PED use. This study highlights the value of measuring psychosocial variables as a tool to assess PED use, a current issue at both sport performance and health levels.
Mikel Zabala, Jaime Morente-Sánchez, Manuel Mateo-March and Daniel Sanabria
José Joaquín Muros, Mikel Zabala, María Jesús Oliveras-López, Francisco Antonio Ocaña-Lara and Herminia López-García de la Serra
The goal of this study was to determine the effect of nutrition education combined with sessions of vigorous extracurricular physical activity (VEPA) on the improvement of health related parameters in children in primary education. The sample group consisted of 54 children in the fifth year of primary education divided into two groups: an intervention group (IG) of 25 students and a control group (CG) of 29 students. The intervention lasted 7 weeks and consisted of 13 sessions of VEPA combined with sessions of nutritional education that were attended by the students in the IG as well as their parents. During the intervention the IG showed a decrease in the body fat percentage, total cholesterol, cholesterol linked to low-density lipoproteins and blood pressure, together with an increase in cholesterol linked to high-density lipoproteins, and an improvement in the maximum oxygen uptake and dietary intake profile compared with the CG, which showed an increase in the percentage of fats and no significant changes (p < .05) in other parameters. The results of this study provide evidence that a 7-week program of nutritional education and vigorous short-duration physical activity can improve health related parameters in children.
José Joaquín Muros, Mikel Zabala, María Jesús Oliveras-López, Paula Rodríguez Bouzas, Emily Knox, José Ángel Rufián-Henares and Herminia López-García de la Serrana
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nutritional education and vigorous physical activity on health-related parameters.
The sample group consisted of 134 children from 5 rurally located schools. Participants were divided between 5 different experimental groups: control group (CG), physical activity group (PA), nutritional education group (NE), combined intervention group (PA+NE), and a combined intervention group with additional substitution of normally used oil for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO; PA+NE+EVOO). The intervention consisted of 60 minute sessions of physical activity held twice a week as well as nutritional education sessions held over 6 months.
Students in the groups receiving physical activity reduced their fat percentage and increased their muscle mass post intervention. At posttest the lipid profile improved in all intervention groups. The proportion of macronutrients and dietary cholesterol improved in the groups receiving nutritional education. The posttest comparison showed significantly lower fat percentage, sum of skinfolds and waist circumference in NE relative to CG and PA relative to CG. Diastolic blood pressure and glycaemia were significantly lower in PA+NE+EVOO relative to CG.
A school-based program consisting of nutritional education or nutritional education plus a physical activity program showed a positive effect on health-related parameters in children.