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Ming Li

Twelve organizational variables that were associated with the organizational effectiveness of spare-time sports schools in China were examined. Specifically, coaches' expressed satisfaction with their jobs and their performance was assessed, and the significant organizational correlates of these two effectiveness indicators were identified. Six hundred forty coaches participated in the study, Stepwise multiple regression analyses were carried out to determine if there were common determinants of coaches' job satisfaction and performance, The results showed that job influence, job motivation, incentive system, and leader behavior had a more pervasive influence on job satisfaction and job performance of the coaches than did other variables.

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An introductory course in sport management should provide the student in the program with a basic understanding of the sport industry. However, the opinions of sport management educators vary as to what should be included in the introductory course. This diversity of opinions regarding course content is reflected in the texts that have been written for use in the introductory course. Each book has its own unique objective and range of topics (Chella-durai, 1985; Lewis & Appenzeller, 1987; Parkhouse, 1992; Parks & Zanger, 1991).

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Zong-Ming Li

Mechanical degrees of freedom (DOF) are defined as the minimum number of independent coordinates needed to describe a system’s position. The human musculoskeletal system has many mechanical DOF through which countless movements are accomplished. In the motor control field, one of the aspirations is to understand how the many DOF are organized for movement execution—the so-called DOF problem. Natural movements are characterized by the coordination of the DOF such that few vary independently. The concept of functional degrees of freedom (fDOF) is introduced to describe the very limited DOF of purposeful, coordinated movements. Deterministic (i.e., constraint satisfaction) and statistical (i.e., principal component analysis) approaches are used to determine fDOF. In contrast to DOF as a mechanical descriptor, fDOF emphasizes the mechanisms of human movements and corroborates our search for the solution to the DOF problem.

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Ming Wen, Lifeng Li and Dejun Su


Physical activity (PA) has been routinely linked to lower all-cause mortality, yet extant research in the United States is primarily based on nonrepresentative samples. Evidence is scant on the relative and independent merits of leisure-time (LTPA) versus non-leisure-time (NLTPA) activities and how the PA-mortality link may vary across racial-ethnic-gender groups.


Data were from Health and Retirement Study which began in 1992 collecting data on individuals aged 51–61 years who were subsequently surveyed once every 2 years. The current study assessed group-specific effects of LTPA and NLTPA measured in 1992 on mortality that occurred during the 1992–2008 follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to examine the PA-mortality link.


Net of a wide range of controls, both LTPA and NLTPA showed a gradient negative relation with mortality. No gender-PA interaction effects were evident. Some interaction effects of PA with race-ethnicity were found but they were weak and inconsistent. The mortality reduction effects of PA seemed robust across racial-ethnic-gender groups.


Regardless of personal background, PA is a major health promoting factor and should be encouraged in aging populations. More research is needed to assess relative merits of different types and domains of PA.

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Edited by Lueie Thibault

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Nancy A. Baker, Kaihua Xiu, Krissy Moehling and Zong-Ming Li

The purpose of this paper is to describe the transverse metacarpal arch (TMA) during a dynamic typing task. Static/relaxed and dynamic typing TMA were collected from 36 right-handed females with musculoskeletal discomfort using a motion capture system. While the angle of right TMA static/relaxed posture (10.1° ± 5.5°) was significantly larger than the left (8.5° ± 5.6°) (P < .05), the right dynamic posture (10.6° ± 4.3°) was not significantly different from the left (10.3° ± 5.5°) (P = .66). Within both these mean scores, there was considerable individual variation, with some subjects demonstrating very flat TMA, and some very curved. The results indicate that TMA angular postures both for static/relaxed and dynamic typing are highly variable both between individuals and between individual hands.

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Edited by Thibault

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Lucie Thibault, Ming Li, David Pan and Darlene Young

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Sheng Li, Frederic Danion, Mark L. Latash, Zong-Ming Li and Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky

One purpose of the present study was to compare indices of finger coordination during force production by the fingers of the right hand and of the left hand. The other purpose was to study the relation between the phenomena of force deficit during multifinger one-hand tasks and of bilateral force deficit during two-hand tasks. Thirteen healthy right-handed subjects performed maximal voluntary force production tasks with different finger combinations involving fingers of one hand or of both hands together. Fingers of the left hand demonstrated lower peak forces, higher indices of finger enslaving, and similar indices of force deficit. Significant bilateral effects during force production by fingers of both hands acting in parallel were seen only during tasks involving different fingers or finger groups in the two hands (asymmetrical tasks). The bilateral deficit effects were more pronounced in the hand whose fingers generated higher forces. These findings suggest a generalization of an earlier introduced principle of minimization of secondary moments. They also may be interpreted as suggesting that bilateral force deficit is task-specific and may reflect certain optimization principles.

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Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen and Ren-Hau Li

To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.