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Miranda P. Kaye and Sharleen Hoar

The development of a self-report instrument to measure antisocial sport behavior, labeled the Antisocial Sport Behavior Survey (ASBS), among large and diverse samples of athletes is reported. Grounded in the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action (Bandura, 1991) and interpersonal theory (Horowitz, 2004), this instrument was developed and tested in accordance with the traditions of construct validity and classical test theory (Gehlback & Brinkworth, 2011). In Phase 1, 272 college-aged competitive sport participants confirmed a theoretical structure of antisocial sport behavior including eight factors (hypercompetitive, intimidating, antagonistic, disrespectful, exploitable, overly accommodating, abetting, and melodramatic). Phase 2 reports on item development and the response structure of the instrument. In Phase 3, evidence of structural validity and external validity for the ASBS was established with 340 college-aged competitive sport participants. The ASBS presents as a promising new instrument to advance understanding of antisocial sport behavior acts committed by competitive athletes.

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Miranda P. Kaye, David E. Conroy, and Angela M. Fifer

This study compared the fear of failure and perfectionism constructs by analyzing their latent structure as well as their motivational antecedents and consequences. College students (N = 372) enrolled in physical activity classes completed a battery of questionnaires assessing fear of failure, perfectionism, approach and avoidance motivational temperaments, and 2 × 2 achievement goals. Structural equation modeling revealed that responses were best summarized by two correlated factors representing perfectionistic strivings and concerns. Avoidance temperament was positively associated with both forms of incompetence avoidance; however, approach temperament was positively related only to perfectionist strivings. Perfectionistic concerns were positively related to the adoption of mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals and negatively related to the adoption of mastery-approach goals. Perfectionistic strivings were positively associated with both approach goals. These results indicate that strivings to avoid incompetence can be distinguished with respect to their latent structure, temperamental antecedents, and motivational consequences.

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David E. Conroy, Miranda P. Kaye, and J. Douglas Coatsworth

The present research tested a model of social-cognitive influences on situational motivation (i.e., youths’ reasons for participating in sport at a given moment in time) via youths’ 2 × 2 achievement goals. Boys and girls (N = 165) participating in a summer swim league completed measures of their achievement goals and situational motivation on multiple occasions during a 6-week period; they also rated the coaching climate at the end of the season. All Situational Motivation Scale responses exhibited acceptable levels of longitudinal factorial invariance. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that intrinsic motivation and identified regulation did not appear to change over the course of the season; however, external regulation and amotivation increased significantly during that period. Youths’ perceptions of an avoidance-oriented coaching climate predicted corresponding residualized change in their own achievement goals over the season. Additionally, residualized change in youths’ mastery-avoidance goals (i.e., focus on avoiding self-referenced incompetence) was positively linked to the rate at which external regulation and amotivation scores changed.