The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the potential determinants of male and female adolescents’ attitudes toward school physical education. Students (N=488), randomly selected from four large metropolitan schools, were asked to comment on their school physical education experience from kindergarten through Grade 10. A systematic content analysis was used to categorize these responses. Three main questions were addressed: What factors in the K-10 physical education experience of male/female students contribute to the development of positive/negative attitudes toward physical education? Are these factors different for males and females? Are they different for students electing to take school physical education? Five main determinants of attitude were identified in ranked order: curriculum content, teacher behavior, class atmosphere, student self-perceptions, and facilities. Overall, male and female students identified the same determinants in the same order of priority.
Moira D. Luke and Gary D. Sinclair
William J. Cousineau and Moira D. Luke
This study examined the relationship between teachers’ expectations of performance and the academic learning time (ALT) of elementary students in physical education classes. Six teachers from different schools were asked to rank-order their students according to expected levels of performance in physical education. Thirty-six students, one boy and one girl from the high, middle, and low expectancy groups of each class, were chosen for observation in three basketball lessons to determine ALT–PE. Using ANOVA, a significant difference was found between level of teacher expectation and academic learning time of students. High expectancy students had significantly higher ALT–PE measures than middle expectancy students, who in turn had higher ALT–PE measures than low expectancy students. Significant differences in ALT–PE were also evident across the three basketball lessons observed. No significant difference was found between student gender and ALT–PE. These results suggest that a relationship does exist between teacher expectations and academic learning time in physical education.