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James N. Roemmich

Background:

Breaking periods of sitting with standing may prevent chronic diseases and increase energy expenditure (EE). Sit-to-stand height adjustable desks may promote workplace standing, but workers have to be willing to stand for portions of the workday.

Methods:

For studies 1 and 2, EE was measured during word processing while sitting in a chair and while standing. Subjects scored their liking of each posture and time they would be willing to work in each posture during an 8-hour workday. Study 2 included an intervention of replacing subjects’ sitting desks with a height adjustable desk. Liking of and willingness to work in each posture were measured before and after the 12-month intervention.

Results:

EE was 7.5 kcal/h greater when standing than when sitting. Subjects liked sitting more than standing in study 1. In study 2, liking of postures did not differ or change across 12 months use of height adjustable desks. Perceived willingness to stand decreased from 4.5 h/d at baseline to 3.4 h/d after 12 months.

Conclusions:

Standing rather than sitting increased EE by 7.5 kcal/h. Use of a height adjustable desk for 12 months did not alter the hedonic value of standing or sitting, which is promising for long-term increases in standing.

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James G. Thompson and Eugene N. Borza

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James D. Wyant and Kristi N. Wyant

In recent years, the physical education (PE) profession has been forced to confront a plethora of issues, from the demise of teacher education programs to the loss of programming in the K–12 context. Calls for change and a time of introspection have been prompted by this climate. The impetus for change has long been a staple of PE discourse. Occupational socialization theory, which describes the forces that shape the decisions and behaviors of physical education teachers, offers insight on the change narrative. Emerging from the results of occupational socialization research are myriad negative issues that highlight a perplexing problem—some PE teachers have the propensity to make irrational decisions. The purpose of this article is to apply decision theory as a means to critically examine issues that have emerged from the negative socialization cycle of PE teachers. Beyond connecting theories, suggestions will be provided to improve the decision-making of PE professionals.

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James N. Roemmich and John P. Frappier

This study compared successful (n=19) and less successful (n=19) varsity wrestlers matched for age, weight, height, and wrestling experience on physiological variables important for wrestling success using field tests available to a high school wrestling coach. Significant (P<0.05) differences in favor of the successful wrestlers were found for mean left and right grip strength, flexibility of the low back and hamstrings, completed sit-ups, pull-ups, and push-ups. Successful wrestlers also covered a greater distance during a 12min run test and had significantly greater relative anaerobic power (Margaria step test). The groups did not differ significantly in the sum-of-six skinfolds. In conclusion, successful wrestlers had significantly more muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility of the low back and hamstrings, aerobic fitness, and relative anaerobic power than less successful wrestlers. It is suggested less successful wrestlers engage in regular training sessions that include stretching, cardiovascular, and strength/power components.

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James R. Morrow and Steven N. Blair

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James R. Morrow Jr. and Steven N. Blair

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James R. Morrow Jr. and Steven N. Blair

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James R. Morrow Jr. and Steven N. Blair

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Steven N. Blair and James R. Morrow Jr.