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An Inclusive Mastery Climate Intervention and the Motor Skill Development of Children with and Without Disabilities

Nadia C. Valentini and Mary E. Rudisill

The intent of this study was to examine how students (ages 5.9 to 10.9 years) with and without disabilities benefit from an inclusive mastery climate intervention. Participants were randomly distributed into intervention (19 participants with disabilities and 31 participants without disabilities) and comparison (17 participants with disabilities and 37 without disabilities) groups. Participants performed the Test of Gross Motor Development before and after the intervention. The analyses revealed that children with and without disabilities who received the 12-week intervention demonstrated significant improvement in motor skill performance from pre- to post- intervention while the comparison group did not. These findings suggest that the mastery climate intervention provided similar learning opportunities for students with and without disabilities.

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Motivational Climate, Motor-Skill Development, and Perceived Competence: Two Studies of Developmentally Delayed Kindergarten Children

Nadia C. Valentini and Mary E. Rudisill

Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of motivational climate on motor-skill development and perceived physical competence in kindergarten children with developmental delays. In Experiment 1, two intervention groups were exposed to environments with either high (mastery climate) or low autonomy for 12 weeks. Results showed that the mastery-climate group demonstrated significantly better locomotor performance and higher perceived physical competence postintervention than did the low-autonomy group, although both groups improved in locomotor and object-control skill performance. The second investigation extended the findings of the first by determining that the intervention effects were present 6 months later. In summary, the mastery-climate group showed positive changes in skill development and perceived physical competence, and this positive pattern of change was maintained over time.

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Assessment of Motor Development in Childhood: Contemporary Issues, Considerations, and Future Directions

Priscila Tamplain, E. Kipling Webster, Ali Brian, and Nadia C. Valentini

Assessment of the motor domain is a critical aspect of understanding motor development. Measurement of motor development is the baseline to understand potential delays and to promote the tools for change and improvement of this domain. This paper aims to reflect on the construct of motor development and the process of assessing motor performance. We review the use of assessments in motor development research and discuss issues of validity, reliability, sensitivity, and specificity. We appraise selected assessments, describe how the use of assessments changed over the periods of study in motor development, and examine the contemporary status of assessments and its applications. Finally, and most importantly, we provide suggestions and recommendations for future directions in the field, as well as pose important questions for researchers and practitioners to consider when selecting, using, and interpreting assessment results. In light of the contemporary view of motor development and the increasing focus on health applications, we recommend the use of screening tools, short forms, and technology, as well as encouraging the use of and more research on motor development assessments in childhood.

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Test of Gross Motor Development—Third Edition: Establishing Content and Construct Validity for Brazilian Children

Nadia C. Valentini, Larissa W. Zanella, and E. Kipling Webster

The Test of Gross Motor Development is used to identify children’s level of motor proficiency, specifically to detect motor delays. This study aimed to translate the TGMD-3 items and assess reliability and content and construct validity for the TGMD-3 in Brazil. A cross-cultural translation was used to generate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the TGMD-3. The validation process involved 33 professionals and 597 Brazilian children (ages 3–10) from the five main geographic regions of Brazil. The results confirmed language clarity and pertinence, as well as face validity of the TGMD-3. High intrarater (.60 to .90) and interrater (.85 to .99) reliability was evident, and test-retest temporal stability was confirmed (locomotor .93; ball skills .81). Adequate internal consistency was present for the skills-to-test and subtests correlations (TGMD-3-BR: α .74; locomotor skills: α .63; ball skills: α .76) and performance-criteria-to-test and -subtest correlations (TGMD-3: α .93; locomotor skills: .90; ball skills: .88). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of a two-factor model (RMSEA = .04, 90% confidence interval: .03 to .05; CFI = .94; NFI = .91; TLI = .92; GFI = .94; AGFI = .92). The TGMD-3 is a valid and reliable instrument for Brazilian children.

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The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children’s Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

Barbara Coiro Spessato, Carl Gabbard, and Nadia C. Valentini

Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children’s physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children (n = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to CDC guidelines. We found small-to-moderate positive correlations between MC and PA; BMI was not significantly correlated with MC and PA. The linear regression model indicated that overall MC was a better predictor of PA than BMI. Our results suggest that children with higher MC find a way to be more active even in a structured setting such as a PE class. Our findings draw attention to the importance of promoting MC, especially for children with high BMI.

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Interrater Reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development—Third Edition Following Raters’ Agreement on Measurement Criteria

Aida Carballo-Fazanes, Ezequiel Rey, Nadia C. Valentini, Cristina Varela-Casal, and Cristian Abelairas-Gómez

We aimed to calculate interrater reliability of the Test of Gross Motor Development—Third Edition (TGMD-3) after raters reached a consensus regarding measurement criteria. Three raters measured the fundamental movement skills of 25 children on the TGMD-3 at two different times: (a) once when simply following the measurement criteria in the TGMD-3 manual and (b) after a 9-month washout period, following the raters’ consensus building for the measurement criteria for each skill. After calculating and comparing the interrater reliability of these three raters across these two rating times, we found improved interrater reliability after the raters’ consensus-building discussions on ratings of both locomotor skills (moderate-to-good reliability on two of six skills initially and at least moderate-to-excellent on four of six skills following criteria consensus building) and ball skills (moderate-to-good reliability on one of seven skills initially and at least moderate-to-excellent reliability on four of seven skills following criteria consensus building). For subtest scores and overall test scores, raters achieved at least moderate-to-good reliability on their second, postconsensus-building ratings. Based on this improved reliability following consensus building, we recommend that researchers include rater consensus building before assessing children’s fundamental movement skills or guiding curriculum interventions in physical education from TGMD-3 data.

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Fundamental Motor Skills Across Childhood: Age, Sex, and Competence Outcomes of Brazilian Children

Nadia C. Valentini, Samuel W. Logan, Barbara C. Spessato, Mariele Santayana de Souza, Keila G. Pereira, and Mary E. Rudisill

The objectives of this study were to examine sex and age differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS) and to describe the prevalence of low motor proficiency and mastery competence. The Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition was used to assess 2,377 children (3–10 years old) from eight states and 75 schools in Brazil. The results showed that (a) boys are more proficient than girls in the majority of FMS, (b) FMS development begins to plateau at age 7, (c) low motor proficiency is present at age 10 for several FMS, and (d) mastery competence was achieved by only a small number of children. These findings suggest that increased opportunities to engage in physical activity that promotes FMS competence are needed.

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Exploring Associations between Motor Skill Assessments in Children With, Without, and At-Risk for Developmental Coordination Disorder

Nadia C. Valentini, Nancy Getchell, Samuel W. Logan, Ling-Yin Liang, Daphne Golden, Mary E. Rudisill, and Leah E. Robinson


We compared children with, at-risk for, or without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) through (a) correlations, (b) gender and age comparisons, (c) cross tab analyses, and (d) factor analyses.


Children (N = 424; age range: 4–10 years) from southern Brazil completed the TGMD-2 and MABC and placed into groups (DCD: ≤ 5th%, n = 58; at-risk: > 5th to ≤ 15th%, n = 133; typically developing (TD) >16th%, n = 233).


The strongest correlation was between total performance on the TGMD-2 and MABC (r = .37). No gender differences were found for performance on the MABC while boys performed better than girls on the TGMD-2. Cross tab analyses indicated a high level of agreement for children who performed in the lowest percentiles on each assessment. Factor analyses suggested that, for both the TD and at-risk groups, three factors loaded on the motor assessments. In contrast, the DCD group loaded on a sport skill, general skill, and a manipulative skill factor, accounting for 42.3% of the variance.


Evidence suggests that children who perform very poorly on one assessment are likely to perform poorly on the other. Children with DCD may have sports-related skill deficiencies.

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The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence: Determining Content and Construct Validity for Brazilian Children

Nadia C. Valentini, Lisa M. Barnett, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Larissa Wagner Zanella, and Rodrigo Flores Sartori

The pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) was developed to assess young children’s perceptions of competence in fundamental motor skills (FMS) and in active play (AP). The objectives of the present study were to assess validity and reliability with Brazilian children. Nineteen health-related professionals and 331 children (4 to 8 years old) were enrolled in the study. Kappa concordance coefficient, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), polychoric correlations, and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used. The back-reverse translation prevents the bias of a single translation. Experts and professionals confirmed the clarity and pertinence of the items with high agreement scores (values > .90). Test-retest reliability results showed strong ICC (values > .90). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed good internal consistency (α values from .70–.85). The CFA showed appropriate fit indexes for a three-factor model (i.e., six object control, six locomotion, and six AP items) and a two-factor model (i.e., 12 FMS and six AP items). However, the two-factor model showed superior indexes (χ2/df = 3.1; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .06; Goodness-Of-Fit Index = .90; Comparative Fit Index = .91; Akaike Information Criterion = 485.8). The PMSC is a valid and reliable assessment to use in Brazil.