The purpose of this study was to first examine the effects of individual personality on the average time spent consuming sport media each week, and then to examine the extent that team identification mediated the effects of personality on sport media consumption. Personality was assessed using the HEXACO Personality Inventory, which provides a theoretical framework to examine the degree to which six broad personality domains and several underlying personality traits influence behavior. A survey using a national sample of 715 participants indicates that personality traits significantly predict team identity, and directly and indirectly predict sport media consumption. Using this personality framework presents a new area of research for sport communication theories and offers practical application for targeting specific types of individuals when promoting mediated sports events. Future research examining the role of personality in a variety of sport communication areas are offered in conclusion.
Using Personality and Team Identity to Predict Sports Media Consumption
Michael B. Devlin and Natalie Brown-Devlin
Championship and Sponsor Analysis in Intercollegiate Athletics: A Case Study Examining the Effects of Identification, Expectations, and Game Outcomes on Event Sponsorship Evaluations
Natalie Brown-Devlin, Michael B. Devlin, and Vincent Peña
To examine the relationship among identification, fan expectations, and sponsorship outcomes, this study examined Alabama and Clemson fan expectations and responses to the NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) football championship game outcome. This case study sought to understand how fans of winning and losing teams evaluated a sporting event’s sponsor following the conclusion of an event, positing that highly identified fans would demonstrate a halo effect, and report favorable attitudes toward the sponsoring brand as suggested by previous research. However, there is a lack of theoretical evidence regarding consumer expectations when applied within the context of sport. Thus, using the theoretical framework of identification and expectation violation theory, the authors inquired to what extent the outcome of the game and one’s expectations of the outcome influenced their evaluation of the event sponsor. The results support previous research regarding potential halo effects, but also add nuance to earlier work demonstrating that a halo effect is not unilaterally applied for all fans. Given the unpredictable nature of sport and the increasing cost of sponsoring sporting events, these findings help explain the extent to which violations of one’s expected outcome affect subsequent evaluations of a sponsor.
Fan Identification Gone Extreme: Sports Communication Variables Between Fans and Sport in the Ultimate Fighting Championship
Natalie A. Brown, Michael B. Devlin, and Andrew C. Billings
This study explores the implications of the sports communication theory of fan identification and the divisions often developed between identifying with a single athlete and the bonds developed for a sport as a whole. Using the fastest growing North American sport, mixed martial arts (MMA)—more specifically, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC)—differences in levels of fan identification were examined in relationship to attitudes toward individual athletes and attitudes toward the UFC organization. An online survey of 911 respondents produced a highly representative sample of the UFC’s current audience demographics. Results showed significant differences in fan identify between gender, age, and sensationseeking behaviors, suggesting that distinct demographic variables may influence the role that fan identity has not only in sports media consumption but also in future event consumption. Implications and ramifications for future theoretical sports communication research and sports marketing are postulated.
Physical Education Teacher Training in Fundamental Movement Skills Makes a Difference to Instruction and Assessment Practices
Natalie Jayne Lander, Lisa Michele Barnett, Helen Brown, and Amanda Telford
The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable. Neither years of experience nor confidence influenced the quality of assessment tools used; however, greater FMSs training improved assessment practice regularity. Teachers more recently out of preservice were more confident in demonstrating FMSs. The results suggest that FMSs education for teachers should be a priority inclusion in both the training of preservice teachers and the ongoing professional development of in-service teachers.
“My Country is Better Than Yours”: Delineating Differences Between Six Countries’ National Identity, Fan Identity, and Media Consumption During the 2018 Olympic Games
Michael B. Devlin, Kenon A. Brown, Natalie Brown-Devlin, and Andrew C. Billings
Nationalistic notions are embedded within every part of the Olympic Games, inculcating feelings pertaining to one’s nation. Previous research examined the degree to which one is affected by portrayals of nationalism during international sporting events, finding that media consumption and results increase nationalistic feelings. However, such analyses rarely infused overarching fandom into the equation and failed to make global comparisons. This study surveyed 2,245 people from three continents in six different nations (Canada, China, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United States) to examine nationalistic attitudes during the 2018 Winter Olympics and subsequent effects. Significant differences between nationalized qualities manifested between each continent, as did their paths to becoming a fan and consuming content.
“Futures—Past,” A Reflection of 40 Years of the Sociology of Sport Journal: An Introduction
Letisha Engracia Cardoso Brown, Chen Chen, Tomika Ferguson, Courtney Szto, Anthony Jean Weems, and Natalie Welch
Profiling Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Perceived Impact on Training and Performance in a Global Sample of Women Rugby Players
Natalie Brown, Olga Roldan-Reoyo, Genevieve K.R. Williams, Anna Stodter, Izzy S. Moore, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Melitta A. McNarry, and Elisabeth M.P. Williams
Purpose: The potential impact of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) on player health and performance in women’s rugby union (rugby) is not well understood, despite rugby’s growing popularity worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence of HC use and reported associations with training and performance in a global sample of women rugby players. Method: A globally distributed online survey, seeking to explore experiences in women’s rugby, was completed by 1596 current or former adult women 7s or 15s rugby players (mean age 27  y; 7  y playing experience) from 62 countries. The survey included a section of questions about reported HC use, including the type, reason for use, symptoms, and experiences relating to rugby training and performance. Results: A total of 606 (38%) participants from 33 of the 62 (53%) countries reported using HCs, with the combined oral contraceptive pill reported as the most frequently used (44%). Almost half of participants using HCs (43%) tracked HC-related symptoms. Over 10% reported altered rugby performance due to HC-related symptoms, 22% required medication to manage symptoms, and 11% used HCs to control or stop their menstrual periods for rugby training and performance. Conclusions: The current study highlights the prevalence of HC use in women’s rugby, identifying practices that may negatively affect performance, health, and well-being. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the motivations for such practices and knowledge of potential side effects among women rugby players across all levels and countries.
Physical Education Teachers’ Perspectives and Experiences When Teaching FMS to Early Adolescent Girls
Natalie J. Lander, Lisa Hanna, Helen Brown, Amanda Telford, Philip J. Morgan, Jo Salmon, and Lisa M. Barnett
Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency.
In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate their perspectives of: (i) the importance and relevance of teaching FMSs to Year 7 girls, and (ii) the factors influencing effective FMS instruction.
There were two major findings in the data: Year 7 was perceived to be a critical period to instruct girls in FMSs; and current teaching practices were perceived to be suboptimal for effective FMS instruction.
Apparent deficits in current FMS teaching practice may be improved with more comprehensive teacher training (both during physical education teacher education (PETE) and in in-service professional development) in pedagogical strategies, curriculum interpretation, and meaningful assessment.
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Toward the Menstrual Cycle and Menstruation Among Elite African Women Football Players, Coaches, Health Personnel, and Referees
Nonhlanhla S. Mkumbuzi, Senanile B. Dlamini, Andreas Serner, Katrine Okholm Kryger, Natalie Brown, Brianna Larsen, and Fidelis Chibhabha
Despite cross-cultural differences in knowledge and attitudes toward menstruation, most studies on menstruation in women’s sport have been conducted in high-income countries, such as in Europe, and none have been conducted in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of African elite women football players, and their support personnel toward the menstrual cycle and menstruation. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to all participants (n = 564) at two African women football tournaments. Ultimately, 238 women football players, 44 coaches, 18 health personnel, and 17 referees completed it. From 317 questionnaires analyzed, 17%, 27%, 56%, and 0% of players, coaches, health personnel, and referees, respectively, knew at least one menstrual cycle hormone; 91%, 95%, and 100% of players, coaches, and referees, respectively, did not know at least one menstrual cycle phase. Over 70% of health personnel believed that menstruation negatively affects women’s performance in sports compared with 36% of players; 18%, 28%, and 18% of players, health personnel, and referees, respectively, believed that, for convenience, the menstrual cycle should be changed by drugs like contraceptives; and 54%, 61%, 62%, and 40% of players, coaches, health personnel, and referees, respectively, were confident providing advice about the menstrual cycle to teammates. Minimal knowledge of the menstrual cycle has implications on the development of menstrual cycle considerate training environments and educational materials in African women’s football. Furthermore, the relatively low perceived effect of the menstrual cycle on sporting performance and belief in the use of contraceptives may be attributable to differences in community-level religiocultural and social contexts which influence menstrual experiences, and shape behavioral expectations.
Higher Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated With Better Verbal Generativity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, and Belinda M. Brown
Objectives: To examine the associations between physical activity duration and intensity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and executive function in older adults. Methods: Data from 99 cognitively normal adults (age = 69.10 ± 5.1 years; n = 54 females) were used in the current study. Physical activity (intensity and duration) was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and fitness was measured by analysis of maximal aerobic capacity, VO2peak. Executive function was measured comprehensively, including measures of Shifting, Updating, Inhibition, Generativity, and Nonverbal Reasoning. Results: Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with better performance on Generativity (B = .55; 95% confidence interval [.15, .97]). No significant associations were found between self-reported physical activity intensity/duration and executive functions. Discussion: To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify an association between fitness and Generativity. Associations between physical activity duration and intensity and executive function requires further study, using objective physical activity measures and longitudinal observations.