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Larry Lauer, Daniel Gould, Nathan Roman and Marguerite Pierce

Junior tennis coaches commonly argue that parents must push their children and be very involved to develop their talent, despite the strain on the parent-child relationship that may occur from these tactics. To examine parental influence on talent development and the parent-child relationship, nine professional tennis players, eight parents, and eight coaches were retrospectively interviewed about each player’s junior development based Bloom’s three stages of talent development (1985). Results are presented through aggregated, nonfiction stories of three tennis development pathways: smooth, difficult, and turbulent. Smooth pathways were typical of parents who were supportive and maintained a healthy parent-child relationship while facilitating talent development. Difficult and turbulent pathways involved parents who stressed the importance of tennis and created pressure by pushing their child toward winning and talent development. For difficult pathways, parent-child relationships were negatively affected but conflicts were mostly resolved, whereas for turbulent pathways, many conflicts remained unresolved.

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Deborah L. Feltz, Teri J. Hepler, Nathan Roman and Craig Paiement

The Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) measures beliefs coaches have to affect the learning and performance of their athletes. While previous research has provided support for the model of coaching efficacy and the CES as an adequate measure of the construct, these studies have used paid high-school and college coaches. It is possible that the factor structure of the CES may not replicate for volunteer youth sport coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore coaching efficacy sources used by volunteer youth sport coaches. In addition, the validity of the CES was examined, using a 5-point condensed rating scale, among volunteer youth sport coaches before exploring the sources. The study involved 492 volunteer youth sport coaches from various team sports. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the CES had an acceptable fit to the data. The sources of coaching efficacy were examined via multivariate multiple regression and canonical correlation. Results indicated that more confident coaches had more extensive playing and coaching backgrounds, felt their players improved more throughout the season, and perceived more support than did less confident coaches, particularly in regard to technique and game strategy efficacy.

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Frank C. Curriero, Nathan T. James, Timothy M. Shields, Caterina Gouvis Roman, C. Debra M. Furr-Holden, Michele Cooley-Strickland and Keshia M. Pollack


Path quality has not been well studied as a correlate of active transport to school. We hypothesize that for urban-dwelling children the environment between home and school is at least as important as the environment immediately surrounding their homes and/or schools when exploring walking to school behavior.


Tools from spatial statistics and geographic information systems (GIS) were applied to an assessment of street blocks to create a walking path quality measure based on physical and social disorder (termed “incivilities”) for each child. Path quality was included in a multivariate regression analysis of walking to school status for a sample of 362 children.


The odds of walking to school for path quality was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.72−1.07), which although not statistically significant is in the direction supporting our hypothesis. The odds of walking to school for home street block incivility suggests the counter intuitive effect (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.08−1.19).


Results suggest that urban children living in communities characterized by higher incivilities are more likely to walk to school, potentially placing them at risk for adverse health outcomes because of exposure to high incivility areas along their route. Results also support the importance of including path quality when exploring the influence of the environment on walking to school behavior.