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Neil D. Clarke and Michael J. Duncan


To investigate the effect of ingesting carbohydrate and caffeine solutions on measures that are central to success in badminton.


Twelve male badminton players performed a badminton serve-accuracy test, coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT), and a choice reaction-time sprint test 60 min before exercise. Participants then consumed 7 mL/kg body mass of either water (PLA), 6.4% carbohydrate solution (CHO), a solution containing a caffeine dose of 4 mg/kg, or 6.4% carbohydrate and 4 mg/kg caffeine (C+C). All solutions were flavored with orange-flavored concentrate. During the 33-min fatigue protocol, participants were provided with an additional 3 mL/kg body mass of solution, which was ingested before the end of the protocol. As soon as the 33-min fatigue protocol was completed, all measures were recorded again.


Short-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of CHO and C+C compared with PLA (P = .001, ηp 2 = .50). Long-serve accuracy was improved after the ingestion of C+C compared with PLA (P < .001, ηp 2 = .53). Absolute error in CAT demonstrated smaller deteriorations after the ingestion of C+C compared with PLA (P < .05; slow, ηp 2 = .41; fast, ηp 2 = .31). Choice reaction time improved in all trials with the exception of PLA, which demonstrated a reduction (P < .001, ηp 2 = .85), although C+C was faster than all trials (P < .001, ηp 2 = .76).


These findings suggest that the ingestion of a caffeinated carbohydrate solution before and during a badminton match can maintain serve accuracy, anticipation timing, and sprinting actions around the court.

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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie and Richard Taylor

Context : Caffeine, often in the form of coffee, is frequently used as a supplement by athletes in an attempt to facilitate improved performance during exercise. Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of coffee ingestion as an ergogenic aid prior to a 1-mile (1609 m) race. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, and placebo-controlled design, 13 trained male runners completed a 1-mile race 60 minutes following the ingestion of 0.09 g·kg−1 coffee (COF), 0.09 g·kg−1 decaffeinated coffee (DEC), or a placebo (PLA). All trials were dissolved in 300 mL of hot water. Results: The race completion time was 1.3% faster following the ingestion of COF (04:35.37 [00:10.51] compared with DEC (04:39.14 [00:11.21]; P = .018; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.11 to −0.01; d = 0.32) and 1.9% faster compared with PLA (04:41.00 [00:09.57]; P = .006; 95% CI, −0.15 to −0.03; d = 0.51). A large trial and time interaction for salivary caffeine concentration was observed (P < .001; ηp2=.69), with a very large increase (6.40 [1.57] μg·mL−1; 95% CI, 5.5–7.3; d = 3.86) following the ingestion of COF. However, only a trivial difference between DEC and PLA was observed (P = .602; 95% CI, −0.09 to 0.03; d = 0.17). Furthermore, only trivial differences were observed for blood glucose (P = .839; ηp2=.02) and lactate (P = .096; ηp2=.18) and maximal heart rate (P = .286; ηp2=.13) between trials. Conclusions: The results of this study show that 60 minutes after ingesting 0.09 g·kg−1 of caffeinated coffee, 1-mile race performance was enhanced by 1.9% and 1.3% compared with placebo and decaffeinated coffee, respectively, in trained male runners.