Purpose: Recommendations state that to acquire the greatest benefit from heat-acclimation, the clock time of heat-acclimation sessions should match that of expected exercise-heat stress. It remains unknown if adaptations by postexercise hot-water immersion (HWI) demonstrate time-of-day-dependent adaptations. Thus, the authors examined whether adaptations following postexercise HWI completed in the morning were present during morning and afternoon exercise-heat stress. Methods: Ten males completed an exercise-heat stress test commencing in the morning (9:45 AM) and afternoon (2:45 PM; 40 min; 65% of maximal oxygen uptake treadmill run) before and after heat-acclimation. The 6-d heat-acclimation intervention involved a daily 40-min treadmill run (65% of maximal oxygen uptake) in temperate conditions followed by ≤40-min HWI (40°C; 6:30–11:00 AM). Results: Adaptations by 6-d postexercise HWI in the morning were similar in the morning and afternoon. Reductions in resting rectal temperature (T re) (AM −0.34°C [0.24°C], PM −0.27°C [0.23°C]; P = .002), T re at sweating onset (AM −0.34°C [0.24°C], PM −0.31°C [0.25°C]; P = .001), and end-exercise T re (AM −0.47°C [0.33°C], PM −0.43°C [0.29°C]; P = .001), heart rate (AM −14  beats·min−1, PM −13  beats·min−1; P < .01), rating of perceived exertion (P = .01), and thermal sensation (P = .005) were not different in the morning compared with the afternoon. Conclusion: Morning heat acclimation by postexercise HWI induced adaptations at rest and during exercise-heat stress in the morning and midafternoon.
Michael J. Zurawlew, Jessica A. Mee, and Neil P. Walsh
Ricardo J.S. Costa, Robert Walters, James L.J. Bilzon, and Neil P. Walsh
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) intake, with and without protein (PRO), immediately after prolonged strenuous exercise on circulating bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation. Twelve male runners completed 3 feeding interventions, 1 week apart, in randomized order after 2 hr of running at 75% VO2max. The feeding interventions included a placebo solution, a CHO solution equal to 1.2 g CHO~/kg body mass (BM), and a CHO-PRO solution equal to 1.2 g CHO/kg BM and 0.4 g PRO/kg BM (CHO+PRO) immediately postexercise. All solutions were flavor and water-volume equivalent (12 ml/kg BM). Circulating leukocyte counts, bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation, plasma insulin, and cortisol were determined from blood samples collected preexercise, immediately postexercise, and every 30 min until 180 min postexercise. The immediate postexercise circulating leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and lymphocytosis (p < .01 vs. preexercise) and the delayed lymphopenia (90 min postexercise, p < .05 vs. preexercise) were similar on all trials. Bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation decreased during recovery in control (23% at 180 min, p < .01 vs. preexercise) but remained above preexercise levels with CHO and CHO+PRO. In conclusion, CHO ingestion, with or without PRO, immediately after prolonged strenuous exercise prevented the decrease in bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation during recovery.
Nicolette C. Bishop, Neil P. Walsh, Donna L. Haines, Emily E. Richards, and Michael Gleeson
Ingesting carbohydrate (CHO) beverages during heavy exercise is associated with smaller shifts in numbers of circulating neutrophils and attenuated changes in neutrophil functional responses. The influence of dietary CHO availability on these responses has not been determined. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of pre-exercise CHO status on circulating neutrophil and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neutrophil degranulation responses to prolonged cycling. Twelve trained male cyclists performed a glycogen-lowering bout of cycling and were randomly assigned to follow a diet ensuring either greater than 70% (HIGH) or less than 10% (LOW) of daily energy intake from CHO for the next 3 days. On day 4, subjects performed an exercise test that comprised cycling for 1 hour at 60% Wmax immediately followed by a time-trial (TT) ensuring an energy expenditure equivalent to cycling for 30 min at 80% Wmax. Subjects repeated the protocol after 7 days, this time following the second diet. The order of the trials was counterbalanced. At TT completion, the HIGH compared with the LOW trial was associated with higher plasma glucose concentration, lower plasma cortisol concentration, and lower circulating neutrophil count. LPS-stimulated neutrophil degranulation per cell fell similarly on both trials. These findings suggest that pre-exercise CHO status influences neutrophil trafficking but not function in response to prolonged cycling.
Nicolette C. Bishop, Neil P. Walsh, Donna L. Haines, Emily E. Richards, and Michael Gleeson
Ingesting carbohydrate (CHO) beverages during heavy exercise is associated with smaller changes in the plasma concentrations of several cytokines. The influence of dietary CHO availability on these responses has not been determined. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of pre-exercise CHO status on plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) responses to prolonged cycling. Seven trained male cyclists performed a glycogen-lowering bout of cycling and were randomly assigned to follow a diet ensuring either greater than 70% (HIGH) or less than 10% (LOW) of daily energy intake from CHO for the next 3 days. On day 4 subjects performed an exercise test that comprised cycling for 1 hour at 60% Wmax immediately followed by a time-trial (TT) ensuring an energy expenditure equivalent to cycling for 30 min at 80% Wmax. Subjects repeated the protocol after 7 days, this time following the second diet. The order of the trials was counterbalanced. At 1 and 2 hours post-TT, plasma concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 were 2-fold greater on the LOW trial than on the HIGH trial, and peak plasma concentrations of TL-1ra were 9-fold greater on the LOW trial than on the HIGH trial. These findings suggest that pre-exercise CHO status can influence the plasma cytokine response to prolonged cycling.
Neil P. Walsh, Andrew K. Blannin, Nicolette C. Bishop, Paula J. Robson, and Michael Gleeson
Recent studies have shown that neutrophils can utilize glutamine and that glutamine supplementation can improve neutrophil function in postoperative and burn patients. The present study investigated the influence of oral glutamine supplementation on stimulated neutrophil degranulation and oxidative burst activity following prolonged exercise. Subjects, 7 well-trained men, reported to the laboratory following an overnight fast and cycled for 2 hrs at 60%
Angelo Sabag, Ric Lovell, Neil P. Walsh, Nick Grantham, Mathieu Lacome, and Martin Buchheit
Purpose: During heavily congested schedules, professional soccer players can experience exacerbated fatigue responses, which are thought to contribute to an increased risk of injury. Given that match-induced residual fatigue can last up to 72 hours, many coaches naturally prioritize recovery in the days immediately following match day. While it is intuitive for coaches and training staff to decrease the amount of auxiliary training practices to focus on recovery, prescribing upper-body resistance training on the day after match play has recently emerged as a specific training modality in this context. While these sessions may be implemented to increase training stimulus, there are limited data available regarding the efficacy of such a practice to improve recovery kinetics. Methods: In this narrative review, the authors look at the theoretical implications of performing upper-body resistance training on the day after match play on the status of various physiological and psychological systems, including neuromuscular, metabolic, hormonal, perceptual, and immunological recovery. Results: The available evidence suggests that in most cases this practice, as currently implemented (ie, low volume, low intensity), is unlikely to be complementary (ie, does not accelerate recovery) but is potentially compatible (ie, does not impair recovery). Conclusion: Overall, because the perception of such sessions may be player dependent, their programming requires an individualized approach and should take into account match dynamics (eg, fixture scheduling, playing time, travel).
Ricardo J.S. Costa, Matthew B. Fortes, Katharine Richardson, James L.J. Bilzon, and Neil P. Walsh
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) drink consumed immediately after endurance exercise on saliva antimicrobial proteins known to be important for host defense. Eleven male runners ran for 2 hr at 75% VO2max on 2 occasions and immediately postexercise were provided, in randomized order, either a placebo solution (CON) or a CHO-PRO solution containing 1.2 g CHO/kg body mass (BM) and 0.4 g PRO/kg BM (CHO-PRO). The solutions were flavor and volume equivalent (12 ml/kg BM). Saliva flow rate, lysozyme, α-amylase, and secretory (S) IgA concentrations were determined from unstimulated saliva samples collected preexercise, immediately postexercise, and every 30 min until 180 min postexercise. CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a lower saliva flow rate than with CON at 30 and 60 min postexercise. Saliva lysozyme concentration increased immediately postexercise in both trials compared with preexercise (p< .05), and CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a higher saliva lysozyme concentration in the first hour of recovery than with CON (125% greater at 30 min, 94% greater at 60 min; p< .01). Saliva SIgA concentration decreased below preexercise concentrations 90–150 min postexercise (p< .001), with no effect of CHO-PRO. Saliva α-amylase activity was unaffected by exercise or CHO-PRO refeeding. CHO-PRO refeeding did not alter the secretion rates of any saliva variables during recovery. In conclusion, immediate refeeding with CHO-PRO evoked a greater saliva lysozyme concentration during the first hour of recovery after prolonged exercise than ingestion of placebo but had minimal impact on saliva α-amylase and SIgA responses.
Graeme L. Close, Andreas M. Kasper, Neil P. Walsh, and Ronald J. Maughan
The term “food first” has been widely accepted as the preferred strategy within sport nutrition, although there is no agreed definition of this and often limited consideration of the implications. We propose that food first should mean “where practically possible, nutrient provision should come from whole foods and drinks rather than from isolated food components or dietary supplements.” There are many reasons to commend a food first strategy, including the risk of supplement contamination resulting in anti-doping violations. However, a few supplements can enhance health and/or performance, and therefore a food only approach could be inappropriate. We propose six reasons why a food only approach may not always be optimal for athletes: (a) some nutrients are difficult to obtain in sufficient quantities in the diet, or may require excessive energy intake and/or consumption of other nutrients; (b) some nutrients are abundant only in foods athletes do not eat/like; (c) the nutrient content of some foods with established ergogenic benefits is highly variable; (d) concentrated doses of some nutrients are required to correct deficiencies and/or promote immune tolerance; (e) some foods may be difficult to consume immediately before, during or immediately after exercise; and (f) tested supplements could help where there are concerns about food hygiene or contamination. In these situations, it is acceptable for the athlete to consider sports supplements providing that a comprehensive risk minimization strategy is implemented. As a consequence, it is important to stress that the correct terminology should be “food first but not always food only.”
Michael Gleeson, Andrew K. Blannin, Neil P. Walsh, Nicolette C. Bishop, and Anya M. Clark
We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet on the plasma glutamine and circulating leukocyte responses to prolonged strenuous exercise. Twelve untrained male subjects cycled for 60 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake on two separate occasions, 3 days apart. All subjects performed the first exercise task after a normal diet: they completed the second exercise task after 3 days on either a high-CHO diet (75±8% CHO, n = 6) or a low-CHO diet (7±4% CHO, n = 6). The low-CHO diet was associated with a larger rise in plasma cortisol during exercise, a greater fall in the plasma glutamine concentration during recovery, and a larger neutrophilia during the postexercise period. Exercise on the high-CHO diet did not affect levels of plasma glutamine and circulating leukocytes. We conclude that CHO availability can influence the plasma glutamine andcirculaling leukocyte responses during recovery from intense prolonged exercise.
Ricardo J.S Costa, Samuel J. Oliver, Stewart J. Laing, Robert Walters, James L.J Bilzon, and Neil P. Walsh
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of immediate and 1-hr-delayed carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) feeding after prolonged exercise on leukocyte trafficking, bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation, saliva secretory IgA (S-IgA) responses, and circulating stress hormones. In randomized order, separated by 1 wk, 9 male runners completed 3 feeding interventions after 2 hr of running at 75% VO2max. During control (CON), participants received water (12 ml/kg body mass [BM]) immediately and 1 hr postexercise. During immediate feeding (IF), participants received a CHO-PRO solution equal to 1.2 g CHO/kg BM and 0.4 g PRO/kg BM immediately postexercise and water 1 hr postexercise. During delayed feeding (DF), participants received water immediately postexercise and CHO-PRO solution 1 hr postexercise. Unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were collected preexercise, immediately postexercise, and every 20 min until 140 min postexercise. No significant interactions were observed for circulating leukocytes and T-lymphocyte subset counts, S-IgA secretion rate, or plasma cortisol, epinephrine, or norepinephrine concentration. Bacterially stimulated neutrophil degranulation decreased during recovery on CON and DF (24% and 31%, respectively, at 140 min; p < .01) but not on IF. Compared with CON, neutrophil degranulation was higher on IF at 100 min postexercise and higher on IF than DF at 80 min and 100 min onward postexercise (p < .05). Ingestion of a CHO-PRO solution immediately after, but not 1 hr after, prolonged strenuous exercise prevented the decrease in neutrophil degranulation but did not alter circulating stress hormone, leukocyte trafficking, or S-IgA responses. Further research should identify the independent effect of different quantities of CHO and PRO ingestion during recovery on neutrophil responses and other aspects of immune function.