During this study, concerns data were collected from 7 elementary physical education teachers in order to determine their types and intensities of concerns as they proceeded through an in-service program, and to determine the degree to which they implemented the proposed changes. The Stages of Concern Questionnaire and open-ended statements of concern were administered to the teachers on three occasions during the 3-month in-service program: at the outset, midway, and upon completion of the sessions. In order to amplify data collected through these instruments, researchers conducted observations and formal and informal interviews. The data revealed three participation styles among the 7 teachers. The 2 teachers who became users of the innovations were categorized as actualizers. The 3 conceptualizers felt positively disposed to the changes but did not become users during the inservice program. The 2 remaining teachers—the resisters—were negatively disposed to the innovations and failed to implement them. Group and individual analyses are discussed as well as factors that influenced the teachers’ participation.
Nell Faucette and George Graham
This article discusses some of the results described in a recent observational case study that examined the impact of an in-service program on the curricula and teaching behaviors of two elementary physical education teachers. In the study, numerous factors were identified as enhancers and inhibitors to the implementation process, including the relationships between participating principals and the two teachers. This article describes these relationships and the perceptions of the two teachers as they progressed through the in-service program. It also discusses the teachers’ levels of use of the innovations. The results of the study revealed that both teachers were dramatically influenced by their perceptions of principals’ actions and attitudes but only one of them successfully adopted the innovations. Data for the study were obtained from four sources: observations, interviews, documents, and questionnaires. These data were collected during a 7-month period that included all preliminary and in-service planning sessions as well as five in-service sessions, and during 140 hours of observations at two school sites.
Nell Faucette and Patricia Patterson
This study compared the teaching behaviors of elementary physical education specialists with those of classroom teachers (nonspecialists) while teaching physical education classes. Additionally, data were collected on student activity levels to detect similarities or differences in classes taught by specialists versus nonspecialists. Four specialists and 7 nonspecialists were observed during a 3-month period using the Teacher Observation Schedule (Rushall, 1977). The group time-sampling technique, Placheck recording, was used to gather data on the students’ levels of activity during the observed classes. It was found that specialists had significantly higher values in more effective teaching behaviors such as feedback/reward, questioning, and directing/explaining/informing, and significantly lower values in less effective teaching behaviors such as monitoring/attending. Additionally, there were significantly higher levels of activity for students in classes taught by specialists.
Patricia Patterson and Nell Faucette
The purpose of the study was to determine if there were differences in attitudes toward physical activity for children in classes taught by specialists versus those taught by nonspecialists. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 414) from four schools participated in the study. Two schools had P.E. specialists teaching the P.E. classes while the other two schools had classroom teachers teaching the classes. Attitudes were assessed by employing the Children’s Attitude Toward Physical Activity (CATPA) inventory (Simon & Smoll, 1974). Although discriminant function analysis resulted in a significant difference between the attitudes of both groups of children, only 57.48% of the cases were correctly classified. These results suggest that teachers play a minimal role in children’s attitudes toward physical activity. It was recommended that additional studies be conducted that examine and control for multiple factors influencing attitude formation.