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William J. Kraemer and Nicholas A. Ratamess

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Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jay R. Hoffman, Ryan Ross, Miles Shanklin, Avery D. Faigenbaum and Jie Kang

The authors aimed to examine the acute hormonal and performance responses to resistance exercise with and without prior consumption of an amino acid/creatine/energy supplement. Eight men performed a resistance-exercise protocol at baseline (BL), 20 min after consuming a supplement (S) consisting of essential amino acids, creatine, taurine, caffeine, and glucuronolactone or a maltodextrin placebo (P). Venous blood samples were obtained before and immediately after (IP), 15 min (15P), and 30 min (30P) after each protocol. Area under the curve of resistance-exercise volume revealed that BL was significantly less than S (10%) and P (8.6%). For fatigue rate, only S (18.4% ± 12.0%) was significantly lower than BL (32.9% ± 8.4%). Total testosterone (TT) and growth hormone (GH) were significantly elevated at IP and 15P in all conditions. The GH response was significantly lower, however, in S and P than in BL. The TT and GH responses did not differ between S and P. These results indicated that a supplement consisting of amino acids, creatine, taurine, caffeine, and glucuronolactone can modestly improve high-intensity endurance; however, the anabolic-hormonal response was not augmented.

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Avery D. Faigenbaum, James E. McFarland, Neil A. Kelly, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jie Kang and Jay R. Hoffman

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of recovery time following a dynamic warm-up (DY) and a static stretch warm-up (SS) on power performance in adolescent athletes. Following baseline measures, 19 males (16.5 ± 1.1 yrs) performed the vertical jump (VJ) and seated medicine ball toss (MB) at the following time points after DY and SS: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22 min. Analysis of variance revealed that VJ was significantly greater following DY than SS at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 min. Main effects indicated a significant increase in VJ from baseline at 2 and 6 min following DY (2.6–3.9%) and a significant decrease in VJ from baseline at 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 min following SS (–3.2% to –7.0%). No significant interaction effects between DY and SS were observed for MB. These findings indicate that lower body power performance in male adolescent athletes can be enhanced following DY as compared with SS during the first 18 min of the post warm-up period.

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Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jie Kang, James McFarland, Jason M. Bloom, James Magnatta, Nicholas A. Ratamess and Jay R. Hoffman

Although pre-event static stretching (SS) is an accepted practice in most youth programs, pre-event dynamic exercise (DY) is becoming popular. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of pre-event SS, DY, and combined SS and DY (SDY) on vertical jump (VJ), medicine-ball toss (MB), 10-yard sprint (SP), and pro-agility shuttle run (AG) in teenage athletes (15.5 ± 0.9 years). Thirty athletes participated in three testing sessions in random order on three nonconsecutive days. Before testing, participants performed 5 min of walking/jogging followed by one of the following 10 min warm-up protocols: a) five static stretches (2 × 30 s), b) nine moderate-to-high-intensity dynamic movements (2 × 10 yards), or c) five static stretches (1 × 30 s) followed by the same nine dynamic movements (1 × 10 yards). Statistical analysis of the data revealed that performance on the VJ, MB, and SP were significantly (p < .05) improved after DY and SDY as compared with SS. There were no significant differences in AG after the 3 warm-up treatments. The results of this study indicate that pre-event dynamic exercise or static stretching followed by dynamic exercise might be more beneficial than pre-event static stretching alone in teenage athletes who perform power activities.

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Jay R. Hoffman, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Christopher P. Tranchina, Stefanie L. Rashti, Jie Kang and Avery D. Faigenbaum

The effect of 10 wk of protein-supplement timing on strength, power, and body composition was examined in 33 resistance-trained men. Participants were randomly assigned to a protein supplement either provided in the morning and evening (n = 13) or provided immediately before and immediately after workouts (n = 13). In addition, 7 participants agreed to serve as a control group and did not use any protein or other nutritional supplement. During each testing session participants were assessed for strength (one-repetition-maximum [1RM] bench press and squat), power (5 repetitions performed at 80% of 1RM in both the bench press and the squat), and body composition. A significant main effect for all 3 groups in strength improvement was seen in 1RM bench press (120.6 ± 20.5 kg vs. 125.4 ± 16.7 at Week 0 and Week 10 testing, respectively) and 1RM squat (154.5 ± 28.4 kg vs. 169.0 ± 25.5 at Week 0 and Week 10 testing, respectively). However, no significant between-groups interactions were seen in 1RM squat or 1RM bench press. Significant main effects were also seen in both upper and lower body peak and mean power, but no significant differences were seen between groups. No changes in body mass or percent body fat were seen in any of the groups. Results indicate that the time of protein-supplement ingestion in resistance-trained athletes during a 10-wk training program does not provide any added benefit to strength, power, or body-composition changes.

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Avery D. Faigenbaum, Anne Farrell, Marc Fabiano, Tracy Radler, Fernando Naclerio, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jie Kang and Gregory D. Myer

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) during physical education (PE) class on selected measures of health- and skill-related fitness in children. Forty children from two 2nd grade PE classes were cluster randomized into either an INT group (n = 21) or a control (CON) group (n = 19). INT was performed 2x/wk during the first ~15 min of each PE class and consisted of body weight exercises. INT and CON participants were assessed for health- and skill-related fitness before and after 8 wks of PE with or without INT, respectively. A significant interaction of group by time was observed in INT participants with improvements noted in push-ups, curl-ups, long jump, single leg hop, and 0.5 mile (0.8 km) run performance (p < .05). These data indicate that INT is an effective and time-efficient addition to PE as evidenced by improvements in health- and skill-related fitness measures in children.

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Avery D. Faigenbaum, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jim McFarland, Jon Kaczmarek, Michael J. Coraggio, Jie Kang and Jay R. Hoffman

The purpose of this study was to assess the lifting performance of boys (N = 12; age 11.3 ± 0.8 yr), teens (N = 13; age 13.6 ± 0.6 yr), and men (N = 17; age 21.4 ± 2.1 yr) to various rest interval (RI) lengths on the bench press exercise. Each subject performed 3 sets with a 10 repetition maximum load and a 1, 2, and 3 min RI between sets. Significant differences in lifting performance between age groups were observed within each RI for selected sets with boys and teens performing significantly more total repetitions than adults following protocols with 1 min (27.9 ± 3.1, 26.9 ± 3.9, and 18.2 ± 4.1, respectively), 2 min (29.6 ± 1.0, 27.8 ± 3.5, and 21.4 ± 4.1, respectively) and 3 min (30.0 ± 0.0, 28.8 ± 2.4, and 23.9 ± 5.3, respectively) RIs. Significant differences in average velocity and average power between age groups were also observed. These findings indicate that boys and teens are better able to maintain muscle performance during intermittent moderate-intensity resistance exercise as compared with men.

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William J. Kraemer, Ana L. Gómez, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Jay R. Hoffman, Jeff S. Volek, Martyn R. Rubin, Timothy P. Scheett, Michael R. McGuigan, Duncan French, Jaci L. VanHeest, Robbin B. Wickham, Brandon Doan, Scott A. Mazzetti, Robert U. Newton and Carl M. Maresh

Objective:

To determine the effects of Vicoprofen®, ibuprofen, and placebo on anaerobic performance and pain relief after resistance-exercise-induced muscle damage.

De-sign:

Randomized, controlled clinical study.

Setting:

University human-performance/sports-medicine laboratory.

Participants:

36 healthy men.

Methods and Measures:

After baseline testing (72 h), participants performed an eccentric-exercise protocol. Each was evaluated for pain 24 h later and randomly assigned to a Vicoprofen (VIC), ibuprofen (IBU), or placebo (P) group. Postexercise testing was performed every 24 h for 4 d.

Results:

Significantly greater muscle force, power, and total work were observed in VIC than in P (P < .05) for most time points and for IBU at 48 h.

Conclusions:

Anaerobic performance is enhanced with VIC, especially within the first 24 h after significant muscle-tissue damage. The greater performances observed at 48 h might be a result of less damage at this time point with VIC treatment.