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Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing, Nicholas D. Myers and Deborah L. Feltz

Previous research has offered insight into coaches’ perceptions of various efficacy-enhancing techniques but not athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ techniques. The purpose of the present research was to compare coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions of efficacy enhancing techniques. Male (n = 29) and female (n = 49) baseball, basketball, softball, and soccer coaches and teams were surveyed from Division II and III collegiate programs. Results found that the strategies that coaches perceived they used most, as well as were the most effective, were instruction-drilling, acting confident themselves, and encouraging positive talk. Athletes had similar perceptions to their coaches regarding coaches’ use and effectiveness of efficacy techniques. However, closer examination revealed coaches’ and athletes’ mean perceptions of these techniques to vary among levels of congruence and incongruence. Exploratory analyses were also conducted on coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions by gender.

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Nicholas D. Myers, Deborah L. Feltz, Félix Guillén and Lori Dithurbide

The purpose of this multistudy report was to develop, and then to provide initial validity evidence for measures derived from, the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were collected from referees (N = 1609) in the United States (n = 978) and Spain (n = 631). In Study 1 (n = 512), a single-group exploratory structural equation model provided evidence for four factors: game knowledge, decision making, pressure, and communication. In Study 2 (n = 1153), multiple-group confirmatory factor analytic models provided evidence for partial factorial invariance by country, level of competition, team gender, and sport refereed. In Study 3 (n = 456), potential sources of referee self-efficacy information combined to account for a moderate or large amount of variance in each dimension of referee self-efficacy with years of referee experience, highest level refereed, physical/mental preparation, and environmental comfort, each exerting at least two statistically significant direct effects.

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Rodney C. Wilson, Philip J. Sullivan, Nicholas D. Myers and Deborah L. Feltz

This study examined sources of sport confidence and their relationship to trait sport confidence with master athletes. The study employed 216 athletes from 50 to 96 years of age in track and field, tennis, and swimming, using the Sources of Sport Confidence Questionnaire (SSCQ; Vealey, Hayashi, Garner-Holman, & Giacobbi, 1998). Confirmatory factor analysis failed to replicate the proposed 9-factor structure of the SSCQ. Exploratory factor analyses revealed an 8-factor structure with similar factors to the SSCQ, but with fewer items and the elimination of the situational favorableness factor. Physical/mental preparation and mastery were the highest ranked sources among the athletes. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis indicated that physical/mental preparation and demonstration of ability were significant predictors of trait sport confidence for master athletes. Our findings suggest that the SSCQ needs more psychometric work if it is to be used with this type of population.

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Nicholas D. Myers, Melissa A. Chase, Scott W. Pierce and Eric Martin

The purpose of this article was to provide a substantive-methodological synergy of potential importance to future research in sport and exercise psychology. The substantive focus was to improve the measurement of coaching efficacy by developing a revised version of the coaching efficacy scale (CES) for head coaches (N = 557) of youth sport teams (CES II-YST). The methodological focus was exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), a methodology that integrates the advantages of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) within the general structural equation model (SEM). The synergy was a demonstration of how ESEM (as compared with CFA) may be used, guided by content knowledge, to develop (or confirm) a measurement model for the CES II-YST. A single-group ESEM provided evidence for close model-data fit, while a single-group CFA fit significantly worse than the single-group ESEM and provided evidence for only approximate model-data fit. A multiple-group ESEM provided evidence for partial factorial invariance by coach’s gender.

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Ben Jackson, Nicholas D. Myers, Ian M. Taylor and Mark R. Beauchamp

This study explored the predictive relationships between students’ (N = 516, M age = 18.48, SD = 3.52) tripartite efficacy beliefs and key outcomes in undergraduate physical activity classes. Students reported their relational efficacy perceptions (i.e., other-efficacy and relation-inferred self-efficacy, or RISE) with respect to their instructor before a class, and instruments measuring self-efficacy, enjoyment, and effort were administered separately following the class. The following week, an independent observer assessed student achievement. Latent variable path analyses that accounted for nesting within classes revealed (a) that students were more confident in their own ability when they reported favorable other-efficacy and RISE appraisals, (b) a number of direct and indirect pathways through which other-efficacy and RISE predicted adaptive in-class outcomes, and (c) that self-efficacy directly predicted enjoyment and effort, and indirectly predicted achievement. Although previous studies have examined isolated aspects within the tripartite framework, this represents the first investigation to test the full range of direct and indirect pathways associated with the entire model.

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Nicholas D. Myers, Sung Eun Park, Soyeon Ahn, Seungmin Lee, Philip J. Sullivan and Deborah L. Feltz

Coaching efficacy refers to the extent to which a coach believes that he or she has the capacity to affect the learning and performance of his or her athletes. The purpose of the current study was to empirically synthesize findings across the extant literature to estimate relationships between the proposed sources of coaching efficacy and each of the dimensions of coaching efficacy. A literature search yielded 20 studies and 278 effect size estimates that met the inclusion criteria. The overall relationship between the proposed sources of coaching efficacy and each dimension of coaching efficacy was positive and ranged from small to medium in size. Coach gender and level coached moderated the overall relationship between the proposed sources of coaching efficacy and each of the dimensions of coaching efficacy. Results from this meta-analysis provided some evidence for both the utility of, and possible revisions to, the conceptual model of coaching efficacy.