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The Associations Between Parental-Reported and Device-Based Measured Outdoor Play and Health Indicators of Physical, Cognitive, and Social–Emotional Development in Preschool-Aged Children

Cody Davenport, Nicholas Kuzik, Richard Larouche, and Valerie Carson

Purpose: Examine in preschool-aged children: (1) the associations between parental-reported and device-measured outdoor play (OP) and health indicators of physical, cognitive, and social–emotional development and (2) whether associations were independent of outdoor moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Methods: This cross-sectional study included 107 participants. Children’s OP was measured via a parental questionnaire and the lux feature of accelerometers. Children’s growth, adiposity, and motor skills were assessed as physical development indicators. Visual–spatial working memory, response inhibition, and expressive language were assessed as cognitive development indicators. Sociability, prosocial behavior, internalizing, externalizing, and self-regulation were assessed as social–emotional development indicators. Regression models were conducted that adjusted for relevant covariates. Additional models further adjusted for outdoor MVPA. Results: Parental-reported total OP, OP in summer/fall months, and OP on weekdays were negatively associated (small effect sizes) with response inhibition and working memory. After adjusting for outdoor MVPA, these associations were no longer statistically significant. OP on weekdays was negatively associated with externalizing (B = −0.04; 95% confidence interval, −0.08 to −0.00; P = .03) after adjusting for outdoor MVPA. A similar pattern was observed for device-based measured total OP (B = −0.49; 95% confidence interval, −1.05 to 0.07; P = .09). Conclusions: Future research in preschool-aged children should take into account MVPA and contextual factors when examining the association between OP and health-related indicators.

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Expert Appraisal of the 2022 Canadian Para Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Nicholas Kuzik, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, Maeghan E. James, Rebecca L. Bassett-Gunter, Daniela Ruttle, Pinder DaSilva, Katerina Disimino, Christine Cameron, Mike Arthur, Keiko Shikako, and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

This report provides an expert appraisal of the Canadian Para Report Card on physical activity (PA) for children and adolescents with disabilities. Thirteen indicators were graded by a panel of researchers, representatives from disability and PA organizations, and parents of children and adolescents with disabilities using benchmarks of the Global Matrix 4.0 and previous Canadian PA Report Cards. Facilitated panel discussions were used to appraise the available evidence based on data gaps, opportunities, and recommendations. The available data sources included four nationally generalizable or representative data sets. Grades were assigned to 8/13 indicators and ranged from B+ to F. Data gaps in measurement and national surveillance systems were identified. Ableism was an issue identified within some of the reporting benchmarks. The absence of PA from existing accessibility legislation in Canada was a policy gap of concern. Recommendations related to research, surveillance, and policy are provided to enhance PA among children and adolescents with disabilities in Canada.