This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support. No evidence was found that interpersonal stress within the team was an important determinant of performance level. Rather, a low performance level leads to negative feelings about the social climate within the team. But this is only true under specific circumstances (i.e., when there is a perceived lack of parental support). The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
Nico W. VanYperen
This study aimed to predict stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees. The predictor variables reflect commitment aspects from the literature: attraction, perceived lack of alternatives, personal investments, and feelings of obligation to remain. Intent to quit was assumed to mediate the link between these predictor variables and actual turnover. Participants were 420 volunteer volleyball referees officiating at the international, national, or local level. Predictor variables explained 50% of variance of intent to quit, which was the only significant predictor of actual turnover several months later. The percentage of correctly classified subjects was 86.2%. Intent to quit mediated the link between enjoyment and involvement alternatives and stay/leave behavior. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that intent to quit is conceptually and empirically separable from the predictor variables, albiet that strong overlap was observed between enjoyment and involvement alternatives. It is concluded that the most promising way to reduce actual turnover among volleyball referees is to enhance positive affective responses to officiating, particularly by ensuring procedural fairness in the promotion system and paying more attention to referee training and supervision.
Nico W. VanYperen
This study investigated whether the perception of disadvantageous inequity makes athletes more vulnerable to dropping out. Sixty-five talented youth male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years), attending a prestigious soccer school, completed a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the season. The results show that, especially at the end of the season, players who felt underbenefited scored higher on energy depletion and expressed a greater intention to quit. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed no evidence that the perception of inequity is either a cause or a consequence of dropout symptoms.