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Nicole J. Smith, Monica A.F. Lounsbery and Thomas L. McKenzie


Physical education (PE) is recommended as a source for physical activity (PA) and learning generalizable PA skills. Few studies have objectively examined high school PE, specifically its delivery, including PA, lesson contexts, and class gender composition.


We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to assess PA during 6 lesson contexts in 47 boys-only, 54 girls-only, and 63 coed lessons from 7 high schools. MANOVA assessed differences based on class gender composition.


Actual lesson length was 27.7 min, only 65% of the scheduled length of class periods. Students engaged in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) 54% of the time, with boys being more active than girls. Game play was the most dominant context (47%), and little time was allocated to knowledge and skill development. Class size, lesson length, PA, and lesson contexts all differed by class gender composition (P < .001).


Many differences in the conduct of high school PE are related to class gender composition. Boys accumulated more MVPA than girls. When held, PE lessons contributed about 25% of recommended daily PA minutes; improvements could be made by increasing allocations to fitness and skill practice and reducing transition and management time. Teacher professional development is warranted.

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Meghan Warren, Craig A. Smith and Nicole J. Chimera


The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates performance in 7 fundamental movement patterns using a 4-point scale. Previous studies have reported increased injury risk with a composite score (CS) of 14/21 or less; these studies were limited to specific sports and injury definition.


To examine the association between FMS CS and movement pattern scores and acute noncontact and overuse musculoskeletal injuries in division I college athletes. An exploratory objective was to assess the association between injury and FMS movement pattern asymmetry.


Prospective cohort.


College athletic facilities.


167 injury-free, college basketball, football, volleyball, cross country, track and field, swimming/diving, soccer, golf, and tennis athletes (males = 89).


The FMS was administered during preparticipation examination.

Main Outcome Measure:

Noncontact or overuse injuries that required intervention from the athletic trainer during the sport season.


FMS CS was not different between those injured (n = 74; 14.3 ± 2.5) and those not (14.1 ± 2.4; P = .57). No point on the ROC curve maximized sensitivity and specificity; therefore previously published cut-point was used for analysis with injury (≤14 [n = 92]). After adjustment, no statistically significant association between FMS CS and injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% CI 0.53–1.91) existed. Lunge was the only movement pattern that was associated with injury; those scoring 2 were less likely to have an injury vs those who scored 3 (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.08–0.59). There was also no association between FMS movement pattern asymmetry and injury.


FMS CS, movement patterns, and asymmetry were poor predictors of noncontact and overuse injury in this cohort of division I athletes.

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Monica A.F. Lounsbery, Thomas L. McKenzie, Stewart Trost and Nicole J. Smith


Evidence-based physical education (EBPE) programs have increased physical activity (PA) by as much as 18%, yet widespread adoption has not occurred. Understanding school facilitators and barriers to PE should prove useful to EBPE dissemination efforts.


Pairs of principals and PE teachers from 154 schools (75 Adopters and 79 Non-Adopters) from 34 states completed questionnaires. Differences between Adopter and Non-Adopter schools were tested using t tests or Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests and chi-square analyses.


Principals and teachers reported distinct PE curriculum adoption decision making roles, but few viewed themselves as very involved in program evaluation. Teachers in Adopter schools were more satisfied with PE program outcomes and had greater involvement in teacher evaluation and program decision making. Compared with teachers, principals were generally more satisfied with their school’s PE program outcomes and did not share the same perceptions of PE barriers. However, principals also demonstrated a general lack of PE program familiarity.


To facilitate EBPE adoption, dissemination efforts should target both principals and PE teachers. Increasing principal’s knowledge may be instrumental in addressing some teacher perceptions of barriers to PE. Strategic advocacy efforts, including targeting policies that require PE program evaluation, are needed.

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Cody R. Smith, Cory L. Butts, J.D. Adams, Matthew A. Tucker, Nicole E. Moyen, Matthew S. Ganio and Brendon P. McDermott

Context: Exercising in the heat leads to an increase in body temperature that can increase the risk of heat illness or cause detriments in exercise performance. Objective: To examine a phase change heat emergency kit (HEK) on thermoregulatory and perceptual responses and subsequent exercise performance following exercise in the heat. Design: Two randomized crossover trials that consisted of 30 minutes of exercise, 15 minutes of treatment (T1), performance testing (5-10-5 pro-agility test and 1500-m run), and another 15 minutes of treatment (T2) identical to T1. Setting: Outdoors in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature: 31.5°C [1.8°C] and relative humidity: 59.0% [5.6%]). Participants: Twenty-six (13 men and 13 women) individuals (aged 20–27 y). Interventions: Treatment was performed with HEK and without HEK (control, CON) modality. Main Outcome Measures: Gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, thirst sensation, and muscle pain. Results: Maximum gastrointestinal temperature following exercise and performance was not different between trials (P > .05). Cooling rate was faster during T1 CON (0.053°C/min [0.049°C/min]) compared with HEK (0.043°C/min [0.032°C/min]; P = .01). Mean skin temperature was lower in HEK during T1 (P < .001) and T2 (P = .05). T2 thirst was lower in CON (P = .02). Muscle pain was lower in HEK in T2 (P = .03). Performance was not altered (P > .05). Conclusions: HEK improved perception but did not enhance cooling or performance following exercise in the heat. HEK is therefore not recommended to facilitate recovery, treat hyperthermia, or improve performance.

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Nicole M. LaVoi, J. R. Woodward, George Lovell, David Bakhurst, John McGarry, G.D.J. Cataraqui, Tracy Taylor, Peter Dahlén, Geoffrey S. Smith, Vincent Steinhauer, Danielle Mincey White, Mika Roinila, Alan Metcalfe and Faye Linda Wachs