Background: This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the “Walk,” an 8-month physical activity (PA) program led by classroom and physical education teachers, on the motor competence (MC) and PA of 5- to 6-year-old children. Methods: A total of 143 children (mean age = 61.51 [1.85] mo) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Children’s MC was assessed by the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder (KTK), and PA was objectively measured by Omron HJ-720IT-E2 pedometers. Measurements were performed at baseline, midintervention, and postintervention. A 1-sample t test computed at baseline step counts revealed that children presented significantly lower PA than recommended for their age (P < .001). To examine the effect of the intervention on children’s MC and PA, several repeated-measures analyses of variance were utilized on (1) KTK item scores and (2) pedometer data. Results: The results revealed that the Walk project led to practically significant changes in the experimental group compared with the control group in both MC (P < .001, η 2 > .14 for all KTK items) and PA (P < .001, η 2 = .23). Conclusions: This study highlights the efficacy of a PA project, involving both classroom and physical education teachers, for the enhancement of children’s MC and PA.
Dimitrios Aivazidis, Fotini Venetsanou, Nikolaos Aggeloussis, Vassilios Gourgoulis and Antonis Kambas
Vassilios Gourgoulis, Nikolaos Aggeloussis, Georgios Mavridis, Alexia Boli, Panagiotis Kasimatis, Nikolaos Vezos, Argyris Toubekis, Panagiotis Antoniou and Georgios Mavrommatis
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the acute effect of sprint resisted front crawl swimming on the propulsive forces of the hand. Eight female swimmers swam 25 m with maximal intensity, with and without added resistance. A bowl with a capacity of 2.2, 4 and 6 L was used as low, moderate and high added resistance, respectively. The underwater motion of the swimmer’s right hand was recorded using 4 cameras (60 Hz) and the digitization was undertaken using the Ariel Performance Analysis System. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that the velocity of the hand, the pitch and the sweepback angles of the hand, as well as the magnitude and the relative contribution of the drag and lift forces were not significantly modified and thus the magnitude of the resultant force did not change. Moreover, the magnitude of the effective force, as well as the angle formed between the resultant force and the axis of the swimming propulsion were not significantly affected. Thus, it could be concluded that resistance added as in this study did not alter the pattern of the propulsive hand forces associated with front crawl sprinting.