Purpose: To elucidate the relationship between the muscularity of individual lower-limb muscles and 100-m-race time (t 100) in young-adult male sprinters. Methods: Thirty-one young-adult male sprinters took part in this study (age 19.9 ± 1.4 y, height 173.5 ± 4.6 cm, body mass 67.0 ± 4.9 kg, t 100 10.23–11.71 s). Cross-sectional images from the origin to insertion of 12 lower-limb muscles were obtained with via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The absolute volume of each muscle, the ratio of total volume of measured muscles to body mass, the ratio of individual muscle volume to body mass, and the ratio between 2 individual muscle volumes were calculated as indices of muscularity using the images. A stepwise multiple-regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the indices and t 100. Results: A stepwise multiple-regression analysis produced an equation (adjusted R 2 = .234) with the gluteus maximus–to–quadriceps femoris muscle-volume ratio (β = −0.509, P = .003) as the explanatory variable. Conclusions: Individual differences in 100-m-race performance cannot be explained by the muscularity of specific muscles, and 23% of the variability in the performance can be explained by the relative difference between the muscularity of gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris; faster runners have a greater gluteus maximus relative to quadriceps femoris.
Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie and Hiroaki Kanehisa
Norihide Sugisaki, Taku Wakahara, Koichiro Murata, Naokazu Miyamoto, Yasuo Kawakami, Hiroaki Kanehisa and Tetsuo Fukunaga
Although the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle has been shown to be associated with the muscle’s anatomical crosssectional area, whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy alters the moment arm of the muscle remains unexplored. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine this. Eleven men underwent a 12-week resistance training program for the triceps brachii muscle. The maximum muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSAmax), the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle, and the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon were measured using a magnetic resonance imaging system before and after intervention. The ACSAmax (33.6 ± 11.9%, P < .001) and moment arm (5.5 ± 4.0%, P = .001) significantly increased after training, whereas the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon did not change (P > .05). The change in moment arm was smaller than that expected from the relationship between the ACSAmax and the moment arm before the intervention. The present results indicate that training-induced triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy could increase the muscle moment arm, but its impact can be small or negligible.