This study examines the recollections of the Sport Education experiences of a cohort of students (15 boys and 19 girls) who had participated in seasons of basketball, soccer and badminton across grades six through eight (average age at data collection = 15.6 years). Using autobiographic memory theory techniques, the students completed surveys and interviews that asked them to recall what they remembered about the Sport Education seasons in which they had participated. Student responses were mostly from the “general” and more precise “event specific” levels of recall, and their strongest and most detailed memories were of those features that provide Sport Education participants with what is termed authentic experiences. For example, Sport Education was considered different from regular physical education in that it was more serious and organized. Further, students claimed they had a deeper understanding of these sports as a result of their participation, and in particular, as a result of their officiating roles. The findings provide evidence that the features of affiliation, authentic competition and perceived learning that students find so attractive, last well beyond initial exposure to the model, and that future delivery of the model should strongly adhere to these basic tenets.
Students’ Autobiographical Memory of Participation in Multiple Sport Education Seasons
Oleg A. Sinelnikov and Peter A. Hastie
Jack and Jill Went to Instill: Did the Educative Teacher Performance Assessment Cause Them to Falter?
Deborah S. Baxter and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: This study examined and deconstructed socialization experiences relative to the educative teacher performance assessment (edTPA) process of preservice teachers during their physical education (PE) teacher education program and induction year as a PE teacher. Method: Utilizing a multiple case study design, two PE teachers were purposefully selected and investigated from a PE teacher education program requiring a passing score on the edTPA. Interviews and stimulated recall sessions served as data sources. Results: The following themes were identified: (a) initial interactions and impetus for teaching—engaging and fun; (b) instruction in PE teacher education—learning a ton; (c) internship—gauging, I’m stunned; (d) implementation of edTPA—raging, I’m done; and (e) induction—waging has begun. Discussion/Conclusions: Although participants in this study were able to note several positives of the assessment, a majority of the findings corroborate previous research suggesting that edTPA may serve as a subtractive experience for PE preservice teachers.
PETE Faculty’s Perspectives of edTPA: The Range of Change
Deborah S. Baxter and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of changes taking place within the context, structure, and culture of university physical education teacher education programs facilitating high-stakes educative Teacher Performance Assessment policy. Method: Utilizing a multiple-case study design framed by analytical dualism, eight physical education teacher education faculty from eight different programs who had direct involvement in the high-stakes educative Teacher Performance Assessment process were investigated. Data from semi-structured individual interviews, focus group interviews, and documents were interpretively analyzed. Results: Faculty reacted in three distinct ways to the process of change: prevailers, conceders, or exceeders. The process appeared to be based upon an implementation continuum from isolation to internalization. Discussion/Conclusions: University programs have a responsibility to prepare effective physical education teachers who use the best practices for teaching. It is imperative for physical education teacher education faculty to reflect upon the impetus and impact of changes made to their programs.
Investigating the Relationships Between Perceived Mattering, Role Stress, and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Physical Education Teachers
Nicholas S. Washburn, K. Andrew R. Richards, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: Despite being linked with motivationally supportive instruction, little research has investigated antecedents to physical educators’ psychological need satisfaction. This study examined relationships between physical educators’ perceived mattering, role stress, and psychological need satisfaction. Method: The participants included 472 in-service physical educators (232 males and 240 females) from the eastern United States who completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a conceptual model detailing the relationships among study variables. Results: The conceptual model was a good fit for the data, χ2(358) = 657.16, p < .001, root mean square error of approximation = .042 (90% confidence interval [.037, .047], p = .996), standardized root mean residual = .051, nonnormalized fit index = .949, comparative fit index = .955. Generally, perceived mattering influenced role ambiguity and relatedness satisfaction. Role overload and role ambiguity are negatively associated with competence satisfaction, and role conflict is negatively associated with autonomy satisfaction. Discussion: The findings indicate that elevating physical education teachers’ perceived mattering may reduce role stress and increase psychological need satisfaction.
Preservice Teachers’ Assessment Literacy Within Models-Based Practice
Jenna Starck, Oleg A. Sinelnikov, and Kevin Andrew Richards
Purpose: Using the assessment literacy framework, the purpose of this study was to explore preservice teachers understanding and enactment of the message system during an early field experience. Method: Six PTs employed SE seasons totaling 540 min. Seven qualitative data methods were utilized. Data analysis included deductive and inductive analysis using a thematic approach. Trustworthiness included data triangulation, peer debriefing, negative case analysis, and the maintenance of an audit trail. Results: Three main themes derived from the data included: instructional decisions were driven by the SE model and informal assessment; formal assessment was driven by the structure of SE; and high assessment value but low assessment literacy. Discussion/Conclusion: The SE model drove PTs to use formal assessment, but primarily in an evaluative manner. The PTs lacked assessment literacy, felt pressure to follow the model, did not use assessment to inform teaching, and had concerns for future assessment use.
Influence of a Training Program on Preservice Teachers’ Ability to Negotiate With Students
Zachary Wahl-Alexander, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: Previous research has indicated that preservice teachers (PTs) and students take part in negotiations during the instructional process which can significantly impact the nature and quality of instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a training program on the ability of PTs to negotiate while teaching lessons in multi-activity (MA) and sport education (SE) units. Methods: Participants were 13 PTs enrolled in a middle school early field experience (EFE). They taught 13-lesson MA and SE soccer units to 94 students aged 10 to 13 years. The training program included a two-session workshop prior to the EFE and multiple follow-up observations with feedback throughout the EFE. Data were collected by utilizing seven qualitative techniques and analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Results and Conclusions: The key finding was that the training program was effective in that it enhanced PTs’ ability to negotiate with their students. In addition, the study provided more evidence indicating that different patterns of negotiations take place within MA and SE units and that generally negotiating within SE is a more positive experience for teachers and students.
Teacher Socialization in Physical Education: A Scoping Review of Literature
K. Andrew R. Richards, Colin G. Pennington, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Occupational socialization theory (OST) has framed research on physical education (PE) teacher recruitment, professional preparation, and ongoing socialization in schools for nearly 40 yr. Using scoping-review methods, the authors sought to understand the current scope of published research on PE-teacher socialization using OST by descriptively and thematically reviewing 111 identified studies published in English-language journals between 1979 and 2015. Results indicate a predominance of qualitative, cross-sectional research related to PE-teacher socialization, most of which was conducted by a relatively small group of scholars. Themes derived from the analysis of study findings communicate the complexity of teacher socialization experiences and are used to develop recommendations for future research and practice that work toward helping improve teachers’ lived experiences while creating better contexts in which students can learn. The paper concludes with a discussion of extending OST research to understand the recruitment, professional education, and socialization of kinesiology faculty members and professionals across subdisciplines.
Age-Predicted Maximal Heart Rate Equations Are Inaccurate for Use in Youth Male Soccer Players
Zackary S. Cicone, Oleg A. Sinelnikov, and Michael R. Esco
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the differences between measured (MHRobt) and predicted (MHRpred) maximal heart rate (MHR) in youth athletes. Methods: In total, 30 male soccer players [14.6 (0.6) y] volunteered to participate in this study. MHRobt was determined via maximal-effort graded exercise test. Age-predicted MHR (MHRpred) was calculated for each participant using equations by Fox, Tanaka, Shargal, and Nikolaidis. Mean differences were compared using Friedman’s 2-way analysis of variance and post hoc pairwise comparisons. Agreement between MHRobt and MHRpred values was calculated using the Bland–Altman method. Results: There were no significant differences between MHRobt and MHRpred from the Fox (P = .777) and Nikolaidis (P = .037) equations. The Tanaka and Shargal equations significantly underestimated MHRobt (P < .001). All 4 equations produced 95% limits of agreement of ±15.0 beats per minute around the constant error. Conclusions: The results show that the Fox and Nikolaidis equations produced the smallest mean difference in predicting MHRobt. However, the wide limits of agreement suggests that none of the equations adequately account for individual variability in MHRobt. Practitioners should avoid applying these equations in youth athletes and utilize a lab or field testing protocol to obtain MHR.
The Influence of Socialization Factors on Physical Educators’ Conceptions of Assessment and Perceived Quality of Assessment
Jenna R. Starck, K. Andrew R. Richards, Michael A. Lawson, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: Framed by occupational socialization theory, this study examined relationships among teachers’ perceived quality of assessment practices, workplace factors, and their conceptions of assessment. Methods: Ninety in-service physical education teachers from Alabama completed an online survey that attended to perceptions of organizational support, marginalization, valuation toward assessment, assessment quality, and class size. Associations were estimated using ordinary least squares regression. Results: In contrast to our initial hypothesis, no significant relationships were found between perceived assessment quality and perceived organizational support, marginalization, and class size. However, our regression analysis yielded significant results when assessment’s importance for education was the outcome variable. Discussion/Conclusions: The results indicated that teachers’ valuation of assessment included holding students and schools accountable, but was irrelevant to improving education. In addition, marginalization and perceived organizational support impacted teachers’ valuation toward using assessments to improve education. Research on assessment quality may depend first on widespread adoption of physical education teacher education assessment practices.
A Self-Study of a Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Program Coordinator
Victoria N. Shiver, Kevin Andrew Richards, Oleg A. Sinelnikov, and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: The teaching personal and social responsibility model has been incorporated into out of school time programming globally, but there is limited research focused on how practitioners learn to use the model. Guided by occupational socialization theory, the authors used self-study to understand the experiences of a doctoral student as she developed and implemented a teaching personal and social responsibility-based program in an elementary after-school program. Method: Data were collected through reflective journaling and critical friend discussions. Results: Qualitative data analysis resulted in three turning points: (a) a planted seed needs light and rain, (b) an emerging bud with growing roots, and (c) rising in full bloom. High frustration was present at the start, but she grew to fully enjoy and utilize the model. Discussion/Conclusion: Self-study played a role in her ability to continue learning and growing. These findings reinforce the challenging but rewarding process of implementing novel instructional approaches.