This study examines the recollections of the Sport Education experiences of a cohort of students (15 boys and 19 girls) who had participated in seasons of basketball, soccer and badminton across grades six through eight (average age at data collection = 15.6 years). Using autobiographic memory theory techniques, the students completed surveys and interviews that asked them to recall what they remembered about the Sport Education seasons in which they had participated. Student responses were mostly from the “general” and more precise “event specific” levels of recall, and their strongest and most detailed memories were of those features that provide Sport Education participants with what is termed authentic experiences. For example, Sport Education was considered different from regular physical education in that it was more serious and organized. Further, students claimed they had a deeper understanding of these sports as a result of their participation, and in particular, as a result of their officiating roles. The findings provide evidence that the features of affiliation, authentic competition and perceived learning that students find so attractive, last well beyond initial exposure to the model, and that future delivery of the model should strongly adhere to these basic tenets.
Oleg A. Sinelnikov and Peter A. Hastie
Zachary Wahl-Alexander, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: Previous research has indicated that preservice teachers (PTs) and students take part in negotiations during the instructional process which can significantly impact the nature and quality of instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a training program on the ability of PTs to negotiate while teaching lessons in multi-activity (MA) and sport education (SE) units. Methods: Participants were 13 PTs enrolled in a middle school early field experience (EFE). They taught 13-lesson MA and SE soccer units to 94 students aged 10 to 13 years. The training program included a two-session workshop prior to the EFE and multiple follow-up observations with feedback throughout the EFE. Data were collected by utilizing seven qualitative techniques and analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Results and Conclusions: The key finding was that the training program was effective in that it enhanced PTs’ ability to negotiate with their students. In addition, the study provided more evidence indicating that different patterns of negotiations take place within MA and SE units and that generally negotiating within SE is a more positive experience for teachers and students.
Nicholas S. Washburn, K. Andrew R. Richards and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: Despite being linked with motivationally supportive instruction, little research has investigated antecedents to physical educators’ psychological need satisfaction. This study examined relationships between physical educators’ perceived mattering, role stress, and psychological need satisfaction. Method: The participants included 472 in-service physical educators (232 males and 240 females) from the eastern United States who completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a conceptual model detailing the relationships among study variables. Results: The conceptual model was a good fit for the data, χ2(358) = 657.16, p < .001, root mean square error of approximation = .042 (90% confidence interval [.037, .047], p = .996), standardized root mean residual = .051, nonnormalized fit index = .949, comparative fit index = .955. Generally, perceived mattering influenced role ambiguity and relatedness satisfaction. Role overload and role ambiguity are negatively associated with competence satisfaction, and role conflict is negatively associated with autonomy satisfaction. Discussion: The findings indicate that elevating physical education teachers’ perceived mattering may reduce role stress and increase psychological need satisfaction.
Zackary S. Cicone, Oleg A. Sinelnikov and Michael R. Esco
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the differences between measured (MHRobt) and predicted (MHRpred) maximal heart rate (MHR) in youth athletes. Methods: In total, 30 male soccer players [14.6 (0.6) y] volunteered to participate in this study. MHRobt was determined via maximal-effort graded exercise test. Age-predicted MHR (MHRpred) was calculated for each participant using equations by Fox, Tanaka, Shargal, and Nikolaidis. Mean differences were compared using Friedman’s 2-way analysis of variance and post hoc pairwise comparisons. Agreement between MHRobt and MHRpred values was calculated using the Bland–Altman method. Results: There were no significant differences between MHRobt and MHRpred from the Fox (P = .777) and Nikolaidis (P = .037) equations. The Tanaka and Shargal equations significantly underestimated MHRobt (P < .001). All 4 equations produced 95% limits of agreement of ±15.0 beats per minute around the constant error. Conclusions: The results show that the Fox and Nikolaidis equations produced the smallest mean difference in predicting MHRobt. However, the wide limits of agreement suggests that none of the equations adequately account for individual variability in MHRobt. Practitioners should avoid applying these equations in youth athletes and utilize a lab or field testing protocol to obtain MHR.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Colin G. Pennington and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Occupational socialization theory (OST) has framed research on physical education (PE) teacher recruitment, professional preparation, and ongoing socialization in schools for nearly 40 yr. Using scoping-review methods, the authors sought to understand the current scope of published research on PE-teacher socialization using OST by descriptively and thematically reviewing 111 identified studies published in English-language journals between 1979 and 2015. Results indicate a predominance of qualitative, cross-sectional research related to PE-teacher socialization, most of which was conducted by a relatively small group of scholars. Themes derived from the analysis of study findings communicate the complexity of teacher socialization experiences and are used to develop recommendations for future research and practice that work toward helping improve teachers’ lived experiences while creating better contexts in which students can learn. The paper concludes with a discussion of extending OST research to understand the recruitment, professional education, and socialization of kinesiology faculty members and professionals across subdisciplines.
Jenna R. Starck, K. Andrew R. Richards, Michael A. Lawson and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: Framed by occupational socialization theory, this study examined relationships among teachers’ perceived quality of assessment practices, workplace factors, and their conceptions of assessment. Methods: Ninety in-service physical education teachers from Alabama completed an online survey that attended to perceptions of organizational support, marginalization, valuation toward assessment, assessment quality, and class size. Associations were estimated using ordinary least squares regression. Results: In contrast to our initial hypothesis, no significant relationships were found between perceived assessment quality and perceived organizational support, marginalization, and class size. However, our regression analysis yielded significant results when assessment’s importance for education was the outcome variable. Discussion/Conclusions: The results indicated that teachers’ valuation of assessment included holding students and schools accountable, but was irrelevant to improving education. In addition, marginalization and perceived organizational support impacted teachers’ valuation toward using assessments to improve education. Research on assessment quality may depend first on widespread adoption of physical education teacher education assessment practices.
Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, Gary D. Kinchin, Peter A. Hastie, Jamie J. Brunsdon and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purposes: (a) To describe how more experienced and expert teachers interpreted and delivered sport education (SE) during their careers and (b) to discover and describe factors within their occupational socialization that sustained the teachers’ enthusiasm for and ability to deliver SE. Method: Participants were nine teachers. Primary data sources were formal interviews. Secondary supporting sources were documents and film. They were analyzed by employing standard interpretive methods. Credibility and trustworthiness were established through a search for discrepant and negative cases and member checking. Findings: At different times in their careers, the teachers delivered SE in one of four ways: watered down, through a cafeteria approach, the full version, and the full+ version. A number of factors from their acculturation, professional socialization, and organizational socialization enabled the teachers to deliver the full+ version or led to them delivering other versions of the model. Conclusions: The findings allow us to make practical suggestions for preservice and inservice teacher education that may help university faculty facilitate the teaching of SE.