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Player Perceptions of Face Validity and Fidelity in 360-Video and Virtual Reality Cricket

Oliver R. Runswick

Virtual reality (VR) and 360° video can provide new opportunities for testing and training in sport. Both options offer different benefits in terms of efficacy for training, ease of use, and cost. This creates questions about the implementation of immersive technologies, and research is required to further understand their use. We aimed to gain initial evidence of athletes’ perceptions of face validity and fidelity in VR and 360-video. Thirty-nine international pathway cricketers experienced five overs in VR cricket and in a 360-video recording. After trying each technology, players completed questionnaires to measure perceptions of presence and task workload. Participants reported immersive experience in both methods, but higher levels of realism, possibility to act, physical effort, temporal constraints, and task control in VR. 360-video offers a better possibility to visually examine the environment, while VR offers enhanced realism and physical elements, but 360-video may still offer affordable solutions for visual tasks.

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Enhancing Coach Understanding of Mental Ill Health Through the Identification of Temporal Themes in Athletes’ Stories

Matthew J Smith and Oliver R. Runswick

In elite sport, research has highlighted the significant incidence of athletes experiencing mental ill health. The aim of the present study was to make sense of stories that elite athletes tell about experiencing mental ill health through sampling the autobiographies of four male, elite cricketers. In each book, the player spoke in detail about mental ill health and how this impacted on their international career. Horizontal and vertical analyses of the data resulted in six progressive themes being identified, from Early Warning Signs, Fluctuations of Mental Health, Build-up to the Severe Incident, the Severe Incident, the Recovery Process, to Relapsing. The findings are considered in line with how they might be used to meet the call to develop mental health literacy, in aiming to help coaches and other psychology support staff understand more about the process of athletes who experience mental ill health across their career.

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An Examination of the Challenge/Threat State and Sport-Performance Relationship While Controlling for Past Performance

Matthew Jewiss, Oliver R. Runswick, and Iain Greenlees

A challenge state is associated with superior performance compared to a threat state in a variety of performance domains (e.g., sport, aviation, education). However, in the challenge and threat (C/T) literature, between-subjects variability in past performance is often inconsistently controlled for. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of C/T states on performance using two methods to control for past performance. Experiment 1 used previous performance statistics in a between-subjects design and Experiment 2 used a within-subject design. In Experiment 1, regression analysis showed that cardiovascular correlates of C/T states predicted cricket batting performance in 45 amateur cricketers. In Experiment 2, between- and within-subject analysis found that past performance was the only predictor of subsequent golf putting performance in 40 noncompetitive golfers. Taken together, the findings challenge the role that C/T states play in predicting performance under pressure after controlling for past performance.

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“I Found Comfort in Exercising”: Exploring Experiences With Exercise for Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Anusha V. Ramji, Eleanor J. Dommett, and Oliver R. Runswick

Little is known about how adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience exercise, resulting in a lack of recommendations for supporting this population. We aimed to explore how adults with ADHD experience exercise as a management tool before and after diagnosis and how and why individuals experience issues related to exercise dependence. Fifteen active adults with a diagnosis of ADHD participated in semistructured interviews. Three overarching themes were identified: (a) exercise as a necessity for ADHD, reflecting the need to exercise before a formal ADHD diagnosis, and use of exercise as a management tool postdiagnosis; (b) goals and achievements to live by, reflecting how exercise patterns revolved around a need to make progress toward targets; and (c) activity or exercise: a roller coaster journey, covering the ups and downs of exercise journeys. This article highlights the importance of exercise for adults to manage ADHD and how this can be encouraged and supported.

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Context Affects Quiet Eye Duration and Motor Performance Independent of Cognitive Effort

Oliver R. Runswick, Matthew Jewiss, Ben T. Sharpe, and Jamie S. North

Extensive literature has shown the effect of “quiet eye” (QE) on motor performance. However, little attention has been paid to the context in which tasks are executed (independent of anxiety) and the mechanisms that underpin the phenomenon. Here, the authors aimed to investigate the effects of context (independent of anxiety) on QE and performance while examining if the mechanisms underpinning QE are rooted in cognitive effort. In this study, 21 novice participants completed golf putts while pupil dilation, QE duration, and putting accuracy were measured. Results showed that putting to win was more accurate compared with the control (no context) condition, and QE duration was longer when putting to win or tie a hole compared with control. There was no effect of context on pupil dilation. Results suggest that, while the task was challenging, performance scenarios can enhance representativeness of practice without adding additional load to cognitive resources, even for novice performers.