A classification of sport and physical activity services based on two dimensions is presented. The first dimension is the type and extent of employee involvement in the production of services—consumer, professional, and human services. The second dimension is the four sets of client motives for participation in sport and physical activity—pursuit of pleasure, skill, excellence, and health/fitness. A combination of these two dimensions yields six classes of sport and physical activity services: consumer pleasure, consumer health/fitness, human skills, human excellence, human sustenance, and human curative. The managerial implications emerging from the proposed model are outlined with reference to programming, organizing, staffing, and leading in organizations delivering sport and physical activity services.
This study examined the relationship between the discrepancy between preferred and perceived leadership and athletes' satisfaction. The five preferred and perceived leadership behaviors assessed were Training and Instruction, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior, Social Support, and Positive Feedback. Four facets of satisfaction were measured: Satisfaction with Individual Performance, Satisfaction with Team Performance, Satisfaction with Leadership, and Satisfaction with Overall Involvement. The athletes were selected from sports differentiated on the basis of task variability and/or task dependence. Discrepancy in leadership was computed by subtracting the perception of a specific dimension of leader behavior from preference for such behavior. The results showed that discrepancy in leadership for athletes in the various sports was associated with three measures of satisfaction: Satisfaction with Team Performance, with Leadership, and with Overall Involvement. Further, Training and Instruction, and Positive Feedback were the most common dimensions of leader behavior affecting athletes' satisfaction.
Several models of organizational effectiveness are integrated into a comprehensive framework from a viewpoint of organizations as open systems. The multidimensionality of effectiveness is seen as emanating from both the input-throughput-output conceptualization of an organization and the distinctive domains of activities of an organization. The relevance of specific dimensions of effectiveness is said to be contingent upon the type of organization and/or the domain of activities the organization is engaged in. The paper describes the multiple constituency approaches that variously emphasize the need to satisfy the powerful groups, the least advantaged groups, or different groups at different times. The position taken in this paper, however, advocates the perspective of the “prime beneficiary.”
Wendy White Morrow and P. Chelladurai
A successful national sport organization, Synchro Canada, was described in terms of three structural characteristics (formalization, centralization, and complexity) and five processes (activities to ensure resources, work flow, control, identification, and homeostatic activities) based on evidence from documents and, to a limited extent, from interviews. Eighty-five subjects from four constituent groups (administrators, judges, coaches, and athletes) responded to a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions regarding the contributions of the selected organizational characteristics to Synchro Canada's overall effectiveness. The analyses showed that the organization's structures and processes were consistent with the literature in organization theory. From an overall perspective, the respondents perceived the structural and process characteristics as contributing to overall effectiveness. However, the coaches as a subgroup viewed the dimensions of activities to ensure resources, control activities, and centralization as detracting from effectiveness.
P. Chelladurai and A.V. Carron
The purpose of the study was to determine if preferences of athletes for training and instruction (task-oriented) behavior and social support (relationship-oriented) behavior would vary with athletic maturity (operationalized in terms of level of competition). Basketball players from high school midget (n = 67), junior (n = 63), and senior (n = 63) divisions and university (n = 69) completed the “preferred leader behavior” version of the Leadership Scale for Sports. Trend analyses revealed the presence of a quadratic trend in preference for training and instruction which progressively decreased from high school midget, through junior to senior levels and increased at the university level; however, the direction of this trend was opposite to that predicted. A linear trend was obtained for social support which progressively increased from the high school midget level to the university level but, again, it was in a direction opposite than that predicted. It was noted that future research should incorporate both a wide range of competition levels and groups with markedly different levels of success in order to determine the interrelationship between leadership preference and athletic maturity. It was also noted, however, that sport as a social system may not afford athletes an opportunity to achieve athletic maturity.
Albert V. Carron and P. Chelladurai
This study attempted to identify the factors correlated with the athlete's perception of cohesiveness in individual and team sports. The five measures of cohesion used were factor analyzed and two factors were identified: individual-to-group-cohesion (composed of sense of belonging, value of membership, and enjoyment) and group-as-a-unit cohesion (composed of teamwork and closeness). These represented the dependent variables in the multiple regression design. Because cohesion is a group construct, the independent variables were chosen to reflect this aspect. They included measures of compatibility between the coach and athlete and the team and athlete as well as measures of the discrepancy in participation orientation between the coach and athlete and the team and athlete. The results supported a conclusion that cohesiveness in sport is a multidimensional construct. Further, the perception of cohesiveness is moderated by the nature of the sport task. Finally, the most important factors contributing to the perception of cohesiveness in sport teams are the discrepancies between the athlete and coach and between the athlete and team in task motivation.
P. Chelladurai and S. D. Saleh
Three different samples (total N = 485) participated in the development and refinement of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). A five-factor solution with 40 items describing the most salient dimensions of coaching behavior was selected as the most meaningful. These factors were named Training and Instruction, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior, Social Support, and Positive Feedback. Internal consistency estimates ranged from .45 to .93 and the test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .71 to .82. The relative stability of the factor structure across the different samples confirmed the factorial validity of the scale. The interpretation of the factors established the content validity of the scale. Finally, possible uses of the LSS were pointed out.
Beth Steel, P. Chelladurai and Barbara A. Brown
Gender differences in managerial aspirations and managerial potential have been advanced as possible explanations for the structuring of organizations along gender lines, with women concentrated in lower level jobs and under-represented in managerial positions. These hypothesized gender differences were examined in a sample of male and female physical education and non-physical education students. Analysis of variance results showed that the effects of gender, faculty, or their interaction on managerial aspirations were not significant. The main effects of aspiration level, faculty, and gender on the set of managerial potential variables were significant. Aspirants scored higher than nonaspirants on self-assurance, decisiveness, and need for dominance. Non-physical education students scored higher on need for dominance than did physical education students. Males were higher in need for autonomy and need for dominance, while females were higher in decisiveness.
P. Chelladurai, Fiona L. Scott and John Haywood-Farmer
This study was undertaken to (a) define and describe the dimensions of fitness service attributes, (b) identify the differences, if any, between groups of subjects (categorized by sex and marital status) in the degree to which the defined attributes influenced their choice of a fitness club, and (c) develop a scale to measure those dimensions. The Scale of Attributes of Fitness Services (SAFS) was developed in three stages: generation of 71 items to measure the six theoretically derived dimensions, a pilot study (n = 178), and a final study (n = 436). In the final version of SAFS, 30 items were retained to measure five dimensions of fitness attributes: professional services, consumer services, peripheral services, facilities and equipment, and secondary services (such as provision of liquor and food). The results of the 2 x 2 x 5 (sex x marital status x dimensions) repeated measures AMOVA showed a significant three-way interaction effect. Despite differences among the four groups in the absolute ratings of the five dimensions, there was an overall consistency in the rating of facilities and equipment as the most influential dimension, and secondary services such as the bar and restaurant as the least influential in the subjects’ decision to join a particular club.