The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the use of arm swing in the vertical jump. Counter-movement jumps with arms (CMJA) and without arms (CMJ) performed by 36 girls and 20 adult females were examined using force platform analysis. The data were analyzed to determine differences between groups and between types of jump. The analysis of the data indicated that the arm action increased the jump height in both groups, although the increase was greater in children than adults (22.6% and 18.7% respectively; P < .05). This difference in jump height was due to a combination of a greater increase of the height at take-off in children compared with adults (40.6% and 21.6% respectively; P < .05) with no differences in the increase of the flight height. This increase in height of take-off was accompanied by an increase in the distance of propulsion in CMJA compared with CMJ (0.25 m and 0.23 m respectively; P < .05). The results suggested that children take advantage of the action of the arms in vertical jump differently than adults. The children improved their jump height by increasing height at take-off whereas the adults improved by increasing the flight height.
Pablo Floría and Andrew J. Harrison
Pablo Floria, Luis A. Gómez-Landero and Andrew J. Harrison
The purpose of this study was to determine if children exhibit greater variability in center of mass movement and kinetics compared with adults in vertical jumping. Countermovement jumps with arms (CMJA) and without arms (CMJ) performed by 20 female children and 20 female adults were examined using force platform. The data were analyzed using continuous methods to determine differences in variability between groups and between types of jump. Jumping variability was measured by using the average coefficient of variation of the force-, velocity-, displacement-, and rate of force development-time curves across the jump. The analysis indicated that children and adults had similar levels of variability in the CMJ but different levels in the CMJA. In the CMJA, the children had a greater coefficient of variation than adults in force- (20 ± 7% and 12 ± 6%), velocity- (41 ± 14% and 22 ± 9%), displacement- (8 ± 16% and 23 ± 11%) and rate of force development-time (103 ± 46% and 75 ± 42%) curves, as well as in force-velocity relationship (6 ± 2% and 4 ± 2%). The results of analysis suggest that the variability depends on both the level of maturation of the participants as well as the task complexity.