Pamela C. Allison
Pamela C. Allison
Elementary school classroom teachers continue to have primary responsibility for teaching elementary physical education. As a group, they have received little attention concerning their development of pedagogical skills in physical education. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to describe what preservice classroom teachers observe and what perceptual processes they employ while observing physical education field lessons. The participants were seven junior elementary education majors who observed two physical education classes. Data were collected using the techniques of thinking aloud and stimulated recall interview. The constant comparative method of data analysis revealed the following three themes as characteristic of this group of preservice classroom teachers: students’ movement responses dominated their observational attention, the classroom teachers evaluated what they saw, and they observed using the perceptual process of contrast.
Becky W. Pissanos and Pamela C. Allison
The purpose of this topical life history was to gain insight into the individual and socializing conditions that influenced an experienced elementary school physical education teacher’s perceptions and actions regarding continued professional learning. The teacher was interviewed in a series of five interviews over a 3-year period. The audiotaped transcriptions were subjected to the constant comparison data analysis technique, with the emergent patterns reported as results. Continued professional learning was valued as an essential concept associated with being a professional because it ultimately increased the teacher’s potential for helping students learn. Professional development experiences associated with the teacher’s undergraduate professional preparation institution and participation in a national curriculum project contributed most significantly to the teacher’s continued professional learning. The teacher’s continued professional learning was influenced by (a) students, (b) status, (c) administrative support, (d) community perceptions of sport, and (e) personal/professional interactions.
Kate R. Barrett, Pamela C. Allison, and Rick Bell
This study is a follow up to one conducted in 1982 (Bell, Barrett, & Allison, 1985) and examines what a group of eight preservice physical education majors reported seeing in a 15-min games lesson with fifth-grade students at the end of their professional preparation. As in the previous study, an analytic inductive strategy was employed to categorize the data at two levels of specificity. Results indicated that as individuals the preservice teachers recorded statements about the teacher, the students, and the lesson in combination, whereas in the 1982 study, they recorded statements about the students only or the students and the teacher. Level 2 analysis showed 66.1% of the reported statements were about the movement response of the children. This was in sharp contrast to the earlier study in which the preservice teachers made only 10% such statements. The percentage of statements recorded for the subcategory teaching techniques was fairly consistent across the two studies: 21.9% in the current study and 25.9% in the earlier one. Relatively few statements were made in any of the other categories. Preservice teachers at the end of their professional preparation report more observations (224 in contrast with 89), but questions remain why the observations exclude statements about the personal characteristics of students, classroom climate, and lesson elements.
Rick Bell, Kate R. Barrett, and Pamela C. Allison
The ability of physical education teachers to observe the movement response of the learner and the environment in which the response takes place is crucial in effective instruction. This study is an initial attempt to identify what a group of 21 preservice physical education teachers reported seeing in a 15-minute games lesson with fourth-grade students. An analytic inductive strategy was employed to categorize the data at two levels of specificity. Results indicated that as a group the preservice teachers focused on a broad range of teacher and student behaviors and lesson elements, but as individuals they had a more limited focus of attention. Level 2 analysis revealed that only 10% of the recorded statements focused on the movement responses of the children and no statements related to the learning environment. If teacher educators deem it important that their majors notice teacher and student behaviors as well as lesson elements, they have to plan more carefully for this to occur, particularly with majors early in their professional education.
Pamela C. Allison, Becky W. Pissanos, Adrian P. Turner, and Denise R. Law
The constructivist theoretical tenet, that individuals create meaning based on the interaction of their previous knowledge and beliefs with currently experienced phenomena, served as the orientating framework for inquiry into a physical education teacher education program that emphasizes development of skillful movers as the primary goal of physical education. Epistemological stances on movement skillfullness held by 25 beginning preservice teachers were explored. Data were collected in a directed reflective format. Inductive data analysis revealed that these preservice teachers see above average ability, task commitment, and creativity as characteristic of being skillful. Their constructs of skillfulness were developed in contexts that include the human body in action, intermesh of movements, whole pattern of performance, presence of movement, the sociocultural event, and skillfulness as a backdrop for teaching. These findings informed the dialectic between teacher education faculty and students by creating avenues for shared understandings of the epistemological bases of the program.